1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (dominical letter C) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter E) of the Julian calendar, the 1875th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 875th year of the 2nd millennium, the 75th year of the 19th century, and the sixth year of the 1870s decade. As of the start of 1875, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localised use until 1918.

Events

January–March

April–June

July–September

  • Summer – Third Carlist War in Spain: Two government armies under General Quesada and Martínez Campos start encroaching on Carlist territory. Both they and their Carlist opponent (Mendiri) drive opposing sympathisers from their homes and burn crops in areas they can not hold. Several Carlist generals (Dorregaray, Savalls, and others) are unjustly put on trial for disloyalty. Mendiri is additionally removed from his command, and is replaced by the Count of Caserta. Despite having 48 infantry battalions, three cavalry regiments, two engineer battalions, and 100 pieces of artillery at his disposal, Caserta is heavily outnumbered by the government forces opposing him.
  • July 1General Postal Union established.
  • July 1July 7 – Battle of Treviño (Third Carlist War in Spain) at Treviño – Advancing on the key city of Vitoria, in Navarre, the Spanish Republican commander General Jenardo de Quesada sends General Tello to attack the Carlist lines just to the southwest at Treviño. The newly appointed Carlist commander General José Pérula is heavily defeated and withdraws and soon afterwards Quesada enters Vitoria in triumph.
  • July 24 – The legendary Mohican Base Ball Club was established in Kennett Square, PA.
  • August 6Hibernian F.C. founded by Irishmen in the Cowgate area of Edinburgh, Scotland.
  • August 25 – Captain Matthew Webb becomes the first person to swim the English Channel.
  • September 1 – A murder conviction effectively forces the violent Irish anti-owner coal miners, the "Molly Maguires", to disband.
  • September 7 – Battle of Agurdat: An Egyptian invasion of Ethiopia fails when Emperor Yohannes IV defeats an army led by Werner Munzinger.
  • September – English Association football team Birmingham City F.C. is founded as Small Heath Alliance in Birmingham by a group of cricketers from Holy Trinity Church, Bordesley, playing its first match in November.

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January–June

July–December

Deaths

January–June

July–December