1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter E) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday (dominical letter G) of the Julian calendar, the 1890th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 890th year of the 2nd millennium, the ninetieth year of the 19th century, and the first year of the 1890s decade. As of the start of 1890, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localised use until 1918.
- January 1
- January 2
- January 11 – 1890 British Ultimatum: the United Kingdom demands Portugal withdraw its forces from the land between the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola (most of present-day Zimbabwe and Zambia)
- January 15 – The Sleeping Beauty with music by Tchaikovsky is premiered at the Imperial Mariinsky Theatre in St Petersburg, Russia.
- January 25
- February 9 – The Weather Bureau is established within the United States Department of Agriculture.
- February 17 – The British steamship Duburg is wrecked in the South China Sea: 400 lives are lost.
- February 24 – Chicago is selected to host the Columbian Exposition
- March 1
- March 3 – The first American football game in Ohio State University history is played in Delaware, Ohio, against Ohio Wesleyan, with the Ohio State Buckeyes winning 20–14.
- March 4 – The Forth Bridge across the Firth of Forth in Scotland is opened to rail traffic.
- March 8 – North Dakota State University is founded in Fargo.
- March 17 – The first railway in Transvaal, the Randtram, opens between Boksburg and Braamfontein in Johannesburg.
- March 20 – Kaiser Wilhelm II dismisses Otto von Bismarck.
- March 27 – The March 1890 middle Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak, 24 significant tornadoes are spawned by one system killing least 146 people.
- March 28 – Washington State University is founded in Pullman.
- April 14 – First International Conference of American States in Washington DC: Commercial Bureau of the American Republics founded.
- May 1 – A coordinated series of mass rallies and one-day strikes held throughout a large number of cities and mining towns in Europe and North America to demand an eight-hour workday.
- May 2 – Oklahoma Territory becomes effective.
- May 12 – The first ever official English County Championship cricket match begins in Bristol; Yorkshire beats Gloucestershire by 8 wickets.
- May 20 – Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh moves to Auvers-sur-Oise on the edge of Paris in the care of Dr Paul Gachet where he'll produce around seventy paintings in as a large number of days.
- May 31 – The 5-story skylight Arcade opens in Cleveland, Ohio.
- June 1 – The United States Census Bureau begins using Herman Hollerith's tabulating machine to tabulate census returns using punched card input, a landmark in the history of computing hardware. Hollerith's company eventually becomes IBM.
- June 12 – In Michigan, the wooden steamer Ryan is lost near Thunder Bay Island.
- June 20 – The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde published by Philadelphia-based Lippincott's Monthly Magazine (dated July).
- June 27 – Canadian-born boxer George Dixon defeats the British bantamweight champion in London, giving him claim to be the first black world champion in any sport.
- July – Japanese general election of 1890: The first general election for the House of Representatives of Japan, about five percent of the adult male population elect a lower house of the Diet of Japan in accordance with the new Meiji Constitution of 1889.
- July 1 – Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty is signed by Great Britain and Germany.
- July 2 – The Sherman Antitrust Act and Sherman Silver Purchase Act become United States law.
- July 3 – Idaho is admitted as the 43rd U.S. state.
- July 10 – Wyoming is admitted as the 44th U.S. state.
- July 13 – In Minnesota, storms result in the Sea Wing disaster on Lake Pepin, killing 98.
- July 14 – First recorded use of lime-green to describe a color.
- July 26 – In Buenos Aires, the Revolution of the Park takes place, forcing President Juárez Celman's resignation.
- July 27 – Death of Vincent van Gogh: van Gogh apparently shoots himself, dying two days later.
- August 6 – At Auburn Prison in New York, William Kemmler becomes the first person to be executed in the electric chair.
- August 20 – Treaty of London: Portugal and the United Kingdom define the borders of the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola.
- August Kaiser Wilhelm II and Tsar Alexander III meet at Narva.
- September 6 Dublin football club Bohemian F.C. were founded in the Gate Lodge, Phoenix Park.
- September 19 – The Turkish frigate Ertuğrul founders off Japan; 540 lives are lost.
- October 9 – The first brief flight of Clément Ader's steam-powered fixed-wing aircraft Ader Éole takes place in Satory, France. It flies uncontrolled approximately 50 m (160 ft) at a height of 20 cm, the first take-off of a powered aeroplane solely under its own power.
- October 11 – In Washington, D.C., the Daughters of the American Revolution is founded.
- October 12 – In Uddevalla, the Uddevalla Suffrage Association is founded. Formal founding event on November 2 a month later.
- October 13
- November 4 – The first deep level London Underground (Tube) Railway, the City and South London Railway, opens officially.
- November 21 – Edward King, Anglican bishop of Lincoln, is convicted of using ritualistic practices.
- November 23 – King William III of the Netherlands dies without a male heir, and his daughter Princess Wilhelmina becomes Queen, causing the end of the personal union of thrones with Luxembourg (which requires a male heir) so that Adolphe, Duke of Nassau becomes Grand Duke of Luxembourg.
- November 29
- November – Scotland Yard, headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, moves to a building on London's Victoria Embankment, as New Scotland Yard.
- December 15 – Hunkpapa Lakota leader Sitting Bull is killed by police on Standing Rock Indian Reservation.
- December 27 – The British steamship Shanghai burns in the East China Sea off the coast of Anhui Province; 101 lives are lost.
- December 29 – Wounded Knee Massacre: At Wounded Knee, South Dakota, a Native American camp, the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment tries to disperse the non-violent "Ghost-Dance" which was promised to usher in a new era of power and freedom to Native Americans but is feared as a potential rallying tool for violent rebellion by a few in the U.S. government. Shooting begins, and 153 Lakota Sioux and 25 troops are killed; about 150 flee the scene. This is the last tribe to be defeated and confined to a reservation as well as the beginning of the decline of both the American Indian Wars and the American frontier.
- The folding carton box is invented by Robert Gair, a Brooklyn printer who developed production of paper-board boxes in 1879.
- The United States city of Boise, Idaho, drills the first geothermal well.
- Brown trout are introduced into the upper Firehole River in Yellowstone National Park.
- High School Cadets is written by John Philip Sousa.
- William II of Prussia opposes Bismarck's attempt to renew the law outlawing the Social Democratic Party.
- Blackwall Buildings, Whitechapel, noted philanthropic housing, is built in the East End of London.
- English archaeologist Flinders Petrie excavates at Tell el-Hesi, Palestine (mistakenly identified as Tel Lachish), the first scientific excavation of an archaeological site in the Holy Land, throughout which he discovers how tells are formed.
- American geostrategist Alfred Thayer Mahan publishes his influential book The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783.
- Francis Galton announces a statistical demonstration of the uniqueness and classifiability of individual human fingerprints.
- Alfred Tucker becomes Anglican Bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa.
- January 1 – Anton Melik, Slovenian geographer (d. 1966)
- January 5 – Sarah Aaronsohn, member of the Jewish spy ring Nili (d. 1917)
- January 4 – Victor Lustig, Bohemian-born con artist (d. 1947)
- January 9
- January 11 – Oswald de Andrade, Brazilian Modernist writer (d.1954)
- January 19 – Élise Rivet, French Roman Catholic nun and war heroine (d. 1945)
- January 22 – Fred M. Vinson, Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1953)
- January 28 – Robert Franklin Stroud, Birdman of Alcatraz (d. 1963)
- February 10 – Boris Pasternak, Russian writer (Doctor Zhivago), Nobel Prize laureate (declined) (d. 1960)
- February 14 – Nina Hamnett, Welsh artist (d. 1956)
- February 15 – Matome Ugaki, Japanese admiral (d. 1945)
- February 16 – Francesco de Pinedo, Italian aviator (d. 1933)
- February 17 – Ronald Fisher, English biologist (d. 1962)
- February 18
- February 24 – Marjorie Main, American actress (d. 1975)
- February 25
- February 27 – Freddie Keppard, American jazz musician (d. 1933)
- March 3 – Norman Bethune, Canadian doctor and humanitarian (d. 1939)
- March 9
- March 11 – Vannevar Bush, American engineer, inventor, and politician (d. 1974)
- March 20
- March 26 – Aaron S. "Tip" Merrill, American admiral (d. 1961)
- March 28 – Paul Whiteman, American bandleader (d. 1967)
- March 31 – William Lawrence Bragg, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1971)
- April 6 – Anthony Fokker, Dutch aircraft manufacturer (d. 1939)
- April 7
- April 13 – Dadasaheb Torne, Indian filmmaker (d. 1960)
- April 11 – Rachele Mussolini, Italian, wife of Benito Mussolini (d. 1979)
- April 15 – Percy Shaw, British inventor (d. 1976)
- April 16
- April 17 – Victor Chapman, French-American fighter pilot (d. 1916)
- April 18 – Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia (d.1958)
- April 20
- April 21 – Michitaro Tozuka, Japanese admiral (d. 1966)
- April 24 – Masatane Kanda, Japanese general (d. 1983)
- April 26 – Edgar Kennedy, American comedic actor (d. 1948)
- May 1 – Laurence Wild, 1913 NCAA Men's Basketball All-American, former head coach for the Navy Midshipmen men's basketball, and thirtieth Governor of American Samoa (d. 1971)
- May 4 – Franklin Carmichael, Canadian artist (d. 1945)
- May 10 – Alfred Jodl, German general (executed) (d. 1946)
- May 11 – Woodall Rodgers, mayor of Dallas, Texas (d. 1961)
- May 15 – Katherine Anne Porter, American author (d. 1980)
- May 19 – Ho Chi Minh, Prime minister/President of North Vietnam (d. 1969)
- May 23 – Herbert Marshall, English actor (d. 1966)
- June 1 – Frank Morgan, American actor (d. 1949)
- June 6 – Ted Lewis, American jazz musician and entertainer (d. 1971)
- June 10 – William A. Seiter, American film director (d. 1964)
- June 12 – Junius Matthews, American actor (d. 1978)
- June 16 – Stan Laurel, English-born actor (d. 1965)
- June 17 – Hatazō Adachi, Japanese general (d. 1947)
- June 21 – Lewis H. Brereton, American aviation pioneer and air force general (d. 1967)
- June 25 – Charlotte Greenwood, American actress (d. 1977)
- June 26
- June 28 – William H. P. Blandy, American admiral (d. 1954)
- June 30 – Paul Boffa, fifth Prime Minister of Malta (d. 1962)
- July 9 – Joseph-Alphida Crête, Canadian politician (d. 1964)
- July 11 – Arthur Tedder, first Baron Tedder, British air force air marshal (d. 1967)
- July 18 – Frank Forde, Australian Prime Minister (d. 1983)
- July 20 – Verna Felton, American character actress (d. 1966)
- July 22 – Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy, American philanthropist and matriarch of the Kennedy family (d. 1995)
- July 26
- July 29 – P. S. Subrahmanya Sastri, Sanskrit scholar. First to translate Tolkāppiyam into English (d. 1978)
- August 2 – Marin Sais, American film actress (d. 1971)
- August 3 – Konstantin Melnikov, Russian avant-garde architect (d. 1974)
- August 4 – Erich Weinert, German writer and political activist (d. 1953)
- August 5 – Erich Kleiber, Austrian conductor (d. 1956)
- August 10
- August 15
- August 18 – Walther Funk, German politician (d. 1960)
- August 20 – H. P. Lovecraft, American writer (d. 1937)
- August 22 – Hans-Joachim Buddecke, German World War I fighter pilot and ace (d. 1918)
- August 24 – Duke Kahanamoku, American swimmer (d. 1968)
- September 7 – Harland Sanders, Founder of KFC (d. 1980)
- September 8 – Dorothy Price, Irish physician (d. 1954)
- September 10
- September 15
- September 20
- September 21 – Max Immelmann, German World War I fighter ace (d. 1916)
- September 23
- October 1
- October 2 – Groucho Marx, American comedian (d. 1977)
- October 8
- October 13 – Conrad Richter, American novelist and short storey writer (d. 1968)
- October 14 – Dwight D. Eisenhower, U.S. general and 34th President of the United States (d. 1969)
- October 16
- October 17 – Roy Kilner, English cricketer (d. 1928)
- October 25 – Floyd Bennett, American aviator and explorer (d. 1928)
- October 29 – Hans-Valentin Hube, German army general (d. 1944)
- November 7
- November 8 – Conrad Weygand, German chemist (d. 1945)
- November 20 – Leon Cadore, American baseball pitcher (d. 1968)
- November 22 – Charles de Gaulle, President of France (d. 1970)
- November 23 – El Lissitzky, Russian artist and architect (d. 1941)
- December 5
- December 6 – Dion Fortune, British occultist (d. 1946)
- December 8 – Bohuslav Martinů, Czech composer (d. 1959)
- December 10 – Henry Louis Larsen, American Marine Corp General; Governor of American Samoa and Governor of Guam (d. 1962)
- December 11 – Carlos Gardel, Argentine tango singer (d. 1935)
- December 12– Charles Basil Price, Canadian soldier and politician (d. 1975)
- December 20 – Jaroslav Heyrovský, Czech chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1967)
- December 21 – Hermann Joseph Muller, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1967)
- December 25 – Robert Ripley, American collector of odd facts (d. 1949)
- December 26 – Uncle Charlie Osborne, Appalachian fiddler (d. 1992)
- December 30 – Lanoe Hawker, British fighter pilot (d. 1916)
- January 7 – Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Empress Consort of William I, German Emperor (b. 1811)
- January 18 – King Amadeus I of Spain (b. 1845)
- February 22
- March 3 – Innocenzo da Berzo, Capuchin friar (b. 1844)
- March 7 – Karl Rudolf Friedenthal, Prussian statesman (b. 1827)
- March 9 – Sir Mangaldas Nathubhoy, Indian politician (b. 1832)
- March 16 – Princess Zorka of Montenegro (b. 1864)
- April 1 – David Wilber, American politician (b. 1820)
- April 1 – Alexander Mozhaysky, Russian aeronautical pioneer (b. 1825)
- April 11
- June 24 – Subba Row, Hindu theosophist (b. 1856)
- June 30 – Samuel Parkman Tuckerman, American composer (b. 1819)
- July 7 – Henri Nestlé, Swiss confectioner and the founder of Nestlé (b. 1814)
- July 9 – Clinton B. Fisk, American philanthropist and temperance activist (b. 1828)
- July 13
- July 15 – Gottfried Keller, Swiss writer (b. 1819)
- July 29 – Vincent van Gogh, Dutch painter (b. 1853)
- August 6 – William Kemmler, American murderer, first person executed in the electric chair (b. 1860)
- August 11 – John Henry Newman, English Roman Catholic Cardinal (b. 1801)
- October 4 – Catherine Booth, Mother of The Salvation Army (b. 1829)
- October 20 – Richard Francis Burton, English explorer, linguist, soldier (b. 1820)
- October 26 – Carlo Collodi, Italian writer (The Adventures of Pinocchio) (b. 1826)
- November 3 – Ulrich Ochsenbein, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1811)
- November 4 – Félix du Temple de la Croix, French Army Captain & aviation pioneer (b. 1823)
- November 8 – César Franck, Belgian composer and organist (b. 1822)
- November 11 – Marie-Charles David de Mayréna, French adventurer and self-styled King of Sedang (b. 1842)
- November 23 – King William III of the Netherlands (b. 1817)
- November 24 – August Belmont, Sr., Prussian-born financier (b. 1816)
- December 15 – Sitting Bull, Native American chief (b. c. 1831)
- December 21 – Johanne Luise Heiberg, Danish actress (b. 1812)
- December 26 – Heinrich Schliemann, German archaeologist (b. 1822)
- December 31 – Pancha Carrasco, Costa Rican war heroine (b. 1826)