1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (dominical letter G) of the Gregorian calendar, the 1990th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 990th year of the 2nd millennium, the ninetieth year of the 20th century, and the first year of the 1990s decade.

Important events of 1990 include the Reunification of Germany and the unification of Yemen, the formal beginning of the Human Genome Project (finished in 2003), the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope, the separation of Namibia from South Africa, and the Baltic states declaring independence from the Soviet Union amidst Perestroika. Yugoslavia's communist regime collapses amidst increasing internal tensions and multiparty elections held within its constituent republics result in separatist governments being elected in most of the republics marking the beginning of the breakup of Yugoslavia. Also in this year began the crisis that would lead to the Gulf War in 1991 following the Iraq invasion and the largely internationally unrecognised annexation of Kuwait resulting in a crisis in the Persian Gulf involving the issue of the sovereignty of Kuwait and fears by Saudi Arabia over Iraqi aggression against their oil fields near Kuwait, this resulted in Operation Desert Shield being enacted with an international coalition of military forces being built up on the Kuwaiti-Saudi border with demands for Iraq to peacefully withdraw from Kuwait. Also in this year, Nelson Mandela was released from prison, and Margaret Thatcher resigned as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom after over 11 years.

1990 was an important year in the Internet's early history. In the fall of 1990, Tim Berners-Lee created the first web server and the foundation for the World Wide Web. Test operations began around December 20 and it was released outside of CERN the following year. 1990 additionally saw the official decommissioning of the ARPANET, a forerunner of the Internet system and the introduction of the first content search engine, Archie on September 10.

September 14, 1990 saw the first case of successful somatic gene therapy on a patient.

Due to the early 1990s recession that began that year and uncertainty due to the collapse of the socialist governments in Eastern Europe, birth rates in a large number of countries stopped rising or fell steeply in 1990. In most western countries the Echo Boom peaked in 1990; fertility rates declined thereafter.

Encyclopædia Britannica, which ceased printing in 2012, saw its highest all time sales in 1990; 120,000 volumes were sold that year. The number of librarians in the United States additionally peaked around 1990.

Events

January

January 29: Trial relating to Exxon Valdez.

February

March

April

April 1990 in Moscow, USSR

May

June

July

August

Gulf War Begins

September

October

October 3: The former flag of West Germany becomes the flag of all Germany.

November

Margaret Thatcher, the UK's first female Prime Minister, resigns after 11 years.

December

Date unknown

World population

World population
199019851995
World5,263,593,0004,830,979,000 432,614,000+8.95 %5,674,380,000 410,787,000+7.80 %
Africa622,443,000541,718,000 80,629,000+14.88 %707,462,000 85,019,000+13.66 %
Asia3,167,807,0002,887,552,000 280,255,000+9.71 %3,430,052,000 262,245,000+8.28 %
Europe721,582,000706,009,000 15,573,000+2.21 %727,405,000 5,823,000+0.81 %
Latin America441,525,000401,469,000 40,056,000+9.98 %481,099,000 39,574,000+8.96 %
North America283,549,000269,456,000 14,093,000+5.23 %299,438,000 15,889,000+5.60 %
Oceania26,687,00024,678,000 2,009,000+8.14 %28,924,000 2,237,000+8.38 %

Births

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Deaths

January

February

March

April

May

Walter Bruch behind camera

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Nobel Prizes

Fields Medal