Year 6 (VI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Lepidus and Arruntius (or, less frequently, year 759 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 6 for this year has been used after the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Herod Archelaus, ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea, is deposed and banished to Vienne in Gaul.
- Iudaea and Moesia become Roman provinces destroying the Dardani; Syria is guarded by legions X Fretensis, III Gallica, VI Ferrata, and XII Fulminata.
- Emperor Augustus sets up a special treasury, the aerarium militare (170 million sestertii), to pay bonuses to retiring legion veterans.
- Tiberius makes Carnuntum his base of operations against Maroboduus; The Roman legion XX Valeria Victrix fights with Tiberius against the Marcomanni.
- The Illyrian tribes in Dalmatia and Pannonia start the Great Illyrian Revolt.
- The building of a Roman fort signifies the origin of the city of Wiesbaden.
- Caecina Severus is made governor of Moesia.
- Publius Sulpicius Quirinius becomes Governor of Syria and nominally of Judea.
- Quirinius conducts a census in Judea (according to Josephus), which results in a revolt in the province, led by Judas of Galilee, and supported by the Pharisee Zadok. The revolt is repressed, and the rebels are crucified, but it results in the birth of the Zealot movement, the members of which regard the God of Judaism as their only master.
- Due to a food shortage in Rome, Augustus doubles the grain rations distributed to the people.
- Due to a catastrophic fire in Rome, the barracks system is created to allow quicker response in the case of emergencies.
- Augustus banishes Agrippa Postumus, one of his adopted sons, to the island of Planasia.
- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Lucius Arruntius become Roman consuls.
- Theophilus becomes Archon of Athens. There are no further records of Archons until after 23.
- January – Some Chinese fear for the life of the young, ailing Emperor Ping Di as the planet Mars disappears behind the moon this month.
- February 3 – The boy emperor, Ping Di, dies of unexpected causes at age 14; Wang Mang alone selects the new emperor, the Ruzi Ying, age 2, starting the Jushe era of the Han dynasty.
- Candidates for government office must take civil-service examinations.
- The imperial Liu clan suspect the intentions of Wang Mang and foment agrarian rebellions throughout the course of Ruzi Ying's reign. The first of these is led by Liu Chong, Marquess of Ang-Zong (a/k/a Marquis of An-chung), with a small force starting in May or June.
- Jesus, usually considered the latest possible year of birth, based on the Quirinius census in that year (historicity questionable)
- Nero, son of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder (d. 30)
- Milonia Caesonia, Roman empress (d. 41)