Cayenne (/kˈɛn/;[5]French pronunciation: ​[kajɛn]) is the capital city of French Guiana, an overseas region and department of France located in South America. The city stands on a former island at the mouth of the Cayenne River on the Atlantic coast. The city's motto is "fert aurum industria" which means "work brings wealth".[6]

At the 2012 census, there were 121,308 inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Cayenne (as defined by INSEE),[4] 55,198 of whom lived in the city (commune) of Cayenne proper.[2]

Geography

Cayenne is located on the banks of the estuary of the Cayenne River on the Atlantic Ocean. The city occupies part of the Ile de Cayenne. It is located 268 kilometres (167 mi) from Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni and 64 kilometres (40 mi) from Kourou.[7]

Distances to some cities:

History

Historical Affiliations

Kingdom of FranceFrench colonial empire 1643–1658
Dutch Empire 1658–1664
Kingdom of FranceFrench colonial empire 1664–1676
Kingdom of EnglandEnglish Empire 1667
Dutch Empire 1676
Kingdom of FranceFrench colonial empire 1676–1809
PortugalPortuguese Empire 1809–1817
 France 1817–present

Ignored by Spanish explorers, who found the region too hot and poor to be claimed, the region was not colonized until 1604, when a French settlement was founded. However, it was soon destroyed by the Portuguese, who were determined to enforce the provisions of the Treaty of Tordesillas. French colonists returned in 1643 and founded Cayenne, but they were forced to leave once more following Amerindian attacks. In 1664, France finally succeeded at establishing a permanent settlement at Cayenne. Over the next decade the colony changed hands between the French, Dutch, and English, before being restored to France. It was captured by an Anglo-Portuguese force at the invasion of Cayenne in 1809 and administered from Brazil until 1814, when it was returned to French control. It was used as a French penal colony from 1854 to 1938.

Cayenne's coat of arms on a municipal sign.

The city's population has recently grown dramatically, owing to high levels of immigration (chiefly from the West Indies and Brazil) as well as a high birthrate.

Demography

19611967197419821990199920062011
Cayenne (commune)18,61524,51830,46138,09141,06750,59458,00457,229
Cayenne (metropolitan area)21,50528,25735,81249,11866,80392,059112,876121,308
Cayenne (metropolitan area) % p.a.n/a4.66%3.44%4.03%3.92%3.63%2.96%1.45%
Official figures from population censuses.[2][4]

Economy

Cayenne is an important seaport in South America. The city formerly also contained sugar refineries.

Culture

Cayenne is very ethnically diverse, with Creole, Haitian, Brazilian, European, and Hmong and other Asian communities. It is famous for its annual carnival which starts with the arrival of Vaval (the Carnival King) on the first Sunday after New Year's Day and continues with very popular all-night costume balls and Sunday afternoon parades every weekend until Mardi Gras. Carnaval dances include mazurka, biguine and piké djouk. It is the role of the Touloulou (disguised woman) to invite men to dance; the men do not have the right to refuse her. Only Touloulou have the right to dance, non-disguised women may not dance.

There is a large dance scene including both lessons and social dancing. Cafe de la Gare and Domino offer a variety of opportunities including bachata, salsa, merengue, kizomba, zouk, and forro. There are occasionally outdoor socials nears the Place de Chaînes Brisées. Capoeira is also popular and is offered in multiple styles by groups such as ENERGIA PURA.

Main sights

Cayenne centres on its main commercial street, the Avenue Général de Gaulle. At the east end of the avenue near the coast is the Place des Palmistes and the Place de Grenoble (also known as the Place Léopold Héder). Most of the official buildings are located in this area: the Hôtel de Ville (the town hall) built by Jesuits in the 1890s, the Post Office, the Préfecture, residence of French Guiana's Préfect, and the Musée Départmental Franconie. To the west of this area lies Fort Cépérou, built in the 17th century, though now mostly in ruins. To the south lie the Place du Coq and Place Victor Schoelcher (named in honour of the anti-slavery activist) and a market.

To the south of this compact region is the Village Chinois (known as Chicago), separated from the rest of Cayenne by the Canal Laussat. It has a reputation for being a dangerous area.

Other buildings in the city include Cayenne Cathedral, municipal library, the municipal museum and a museum of French Guianese Culture (Musée des Cultures Guyanaise) and a scientific research institute (IRD or Institut de recherche pour le développement, formerly Orstom). The Jardin botanique de Cayenne is the city's botanical garden.

Transport

Cayenne is served by the Cayenne – Félix Eboué Airport, which is located in the neighbouring commune of Matoury.

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Cayenne has a tropical monsoon climate. Average high and low temperatures are nearly identical throughout the course of the year averaging about 30 °C (86 °F) and 23 °C (73 °F) respectively. Cayenne sees copious precipitation during the year. The city features a very lengthy wet season and a very short dry season. The dry season only covers two months of the year (September and October) while the wet season covers the remainder of the year. Precipitation is seen even during the dry season, a trait commonly seen in places featuring tropical monsoon climates. Cayenne averages roughly 3,750 millimetres (150 in) of rain each year.

Climate data for Cayenne – Félix Eboué Airport (in Matoury)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)32.5
(90.5)
32.3
(90.1)
32.2
(90)
33.0
(91.4)
33.2
(91.8)
33.7
(92.7)
33.7
(92.7)
34.2
(93.6)
34.5
(94.1)
35.1
(95.2)
34.2
(93.6)
34.1
(93.4)
35.1
(95.2)
Average high °C (°F)29.1
(84.4)
29.2
(84.6)
29.6
(85.3)
29.9
(85.8)
29.9
(85.8)
30.2
(86.4)
30.8
(87.4)
31.6
(88.9)
32.1
(89.8)
32.2
(90)
31.5
(88.7)
30.1
(86.2)
30.5
(86.9)
Average low °C (°F)23.3
(73.9)
23.4
(74.1)
23.5
(74.3)
23.7
(74.7)
23.5
(74.3)
22.9
(73.2)
22.4
(72.3)
22.4
(72.3)
22.2
(72)
22.3
(72.1)
22.5
(72.5)
23.1
(73.6)
22.9
(73.2)
Record low °C (°F)17.4
(63.3)
18.9
(66)
18.5
(65.3)
19.0
(66.2)
18.8
(65.8)
18.9
(66)
19.0
(66.2)
19.3
(66.7)
18.7
(65.7)
18.6
(65.5)
17.2
(63)
18.8
(65.8)
17.2
(63)
Average precipitation mm (inches)451.2
(17.764)
309.4
(12.181)
334.3
(13.161)
448.4
(17.654)
579.4
(22.811)
411.4
(16.197)
245.7
(9.673)
143.6
(5.654)
55.7
(2.193)
63.3
(2.492)
133.4
(5.252)
340.5
(13.406)
3,516.3
(138.437)
Average precipitation days23.6320.0020.6722.2026.4325.1720.5714.207.137.6011.9321.57221.10
Mean monthly sunshine hours94.389.9119.0118.1118.8148.6196.5229.8255.2251.1217.3137.51,976
Source: Meteo France[10][11]

Administration

Victor-Schoelcher square

Cayenne is the chief town of six cantons:

  • The first canton (North West) has 3,935 inhabitants;
  • The second canton (North East) has 5,730 inhabitants;
  • The third canton (South West) has 8,017 inhabitants;
  • The fourth canton (Centre) has 5,955 inhabitants;
  • The fifth canton (South) has 9,750 inhabitants;
  • The sixth canton (South East) has 17,207 inhabitants

Cayenne in popular culture

The French folk song Cayenne (named after the main city of French Guiana) tells the story of a pimp who shoots a well-to-do client who grossly disrespected a prostitute, and is then convicted and transferred to the infamous penitentiary.

In The Hardy Boys #12: Footprints Under the Window, the Hardys' investigations take them to Cayenne.

The 1955 film We're No Angels involves three prisoners who escape from Devil's Island and settle incognito into a family store in Cayenne.

The Cayenne pepper is named after the city.

The Porsche Cayenne, a mid-sizeluxurycrossover SUV is named after the city