Angelica is a genus of about 60 species of tall biennial and perennial herbs in the family Apiaceae, native to temperate and subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, reaching as far north as Iceland and Lapland and Greenland. They grow to 1–3 m (3 ft 3 in–9 ft 10 in) tall, with large bipinnate leaves and large compound umbels of white or greenish-white flowers.
Some species can be found in purple moor and rush pastures.
Angelica species grow to 1–3 m (3 ft 3 in–9 ft 10 in) tall, with large bipinnate leaves and large compound umbels of white or greenish-white flowers. Their large, sparkling, starburst flowers are pollinated by a great variety of insects (the generalist pollination syndrome), the floral scents are species-specific, and even specific to particular subspecies. The active ingredients of angelica are found in the roots and rhizomes and contains furocoumarins in its tissues which make the skin sensitive to light.
- Angelica acutiloba – dang-gui in Chinese
- Angelica adzharica – Adjarian angelica
- Angelica ampla – giant angelica
- Angelica archangelica – garden angelica, archangel, angelique
- Angelica arguta – Lyall's angelica
- Angelica atropurpurea – purplestem angelica, alexanders
- Angelica breweri – Brewer's angelica
- Angelica californica – California angelica
- Angelica callii – Call's angelica
- Angelica canbyi – Canby's angelica
- Angelica cartilaginomarginata
- Angelica dahurica – bai zhi in Chinese
- Angelica dawsonii – Dawson's angelica
- Angelica dentata – coastalplain angelica
- Angelica genuflexa – kneeling angelica
- Angelica gigas – cham dangwi in Korean
- Angelica glabra – synonym for Angelica dahurica
- Angelica glauca - choraka in Hindi
- Angelica grayi – Gray's angelica
- Angelica harae
- Angelica hendersonii – Henderson's angelica
- Angelica japonica
- Angelica keiskei – ashitaba in Japanese
- Angelica kingii – King's angelica
- Angelica lineariloba – poison angelica
- Angelica lucida – seacoast angelica
- Angelica pachycarpa
- Angelica palustris – marsh angelica
- Angelica pancicii
- Angelica pinnata – small-leaf angelica
- Angelica pubescens - shishiudo in Japanese, du huo in Chinese
- Angelica roseana – rose angelica
- Angelica sikkimensis
- Angelica sinensis – dong quai
- Angelica scabrida – Charleston Mountain angelica, rough angelica
- Angelica sylvestris – wild angelica
- Angelica tomentosa – woolly angelica
- Angelica triquinata – filmy angelica
- Angelica ubatakensis
- Angelica ursina
- Angelica venenosa – hairy angelica
- Angelica wheeleri – Utah angelica
Cultivation and uses
Some species are grown as flavoring agents or for their medicinal properties. The most notable of these is garden angelica (A. archangelica), which is commonly known simply as angelica. Natives of Lapland use the fleshy roots as food and the stalks as medicine. Crystallized strips of young angelica stems and midribs are green in colour and are sold as decorative and flavoursome cake decoration material, but may also be enjoyed on their own. The roots and seeds are sometimes used to flavor gin. Its presence accounts for the distinct flavor of many liqueurs, such as Chartreuse.
A. dawsonii was used by several first nations in North America for ritual purposes.
A. atropurpurea is found in North America from Newfoundland west to Wisconsin and south to Maryland, and was smoked by Missouri tribes for colds and respiratory ailments. This species is very similar in appearance to the poisonous water hemlock.
The boiled roots of angelica were applied internally and externally to wounds by the Aleut people in Alaska to speed healing.
The herb, also known by the Chinese name, Bai Zhi, and Latin name, Radix Angelicae Dahurica, is used medicinally in traditional Chinese medicine..
How to care for angelica plants
Angelica herbs should be grown and sheltered in a semi-shaded spot. Tropical countries and areas are in good favor for planting and harvesting these plants. With enough sunlight, the angelica herb should also be kept moist at all times. It's a good advice to spray water onto them to prevent the leaves from drying out. The leaves should stay green to be healthy. When discoloration occurs and they turn yellowish in shade, this signals that they must be more taken care of. Water the soil and the roots every day to make the soil fertile.