Astrid Spain's practice spans the range of patent counseling, prosecution, and litigation in the life sciences and pharmaceutical industries.Astrid has represented companies in many sectors of the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, including start-up ventures and well-established branded companies. She frequently assists clients with the development and implementation of streamlined and business-oriented intellectual property strategies. She focuses on the shaping of patent portfolios that achieve offensive and defensive goals in view of competitive technologies and life cycle management. Astrid has significant experience in the preparation and prosecution of U.S. patent applications as well as the management of corresponding foreign proceedings. Her practice also includes the preparation of numerous validity, infringement, and freedom-to-operate opinions on biotechnology and pharmaceutical patents. A substantial portion of Astrid's practice is devoted to patent litigation, and her litigation experience includes participation in a lengthy jury trial involving recombinant DNA technology.