Cornmeal is a meal (coarse flour) ground from dried maize (corn). It is a common staple food, and is ground to fine, medium, and coarse consistencies, but not as fine as wheat flour. In the United States, quite finely ground cornmeal is additionally referred to as corn flour. When fine cornmeal is made from maize that has been soaked in an alkaline solution, e.g., limewater (a process known as nixtamalization), it is called masa, which is used for making tamales and tortillas. Boiled cornmeal is called polenta.

Types

There are various types of cornmeal:

  • Blue cornmeal is light blue or violet in color. It is ground from whole blue corn and has a sweet flavor. The cornmeal consists of dried maize kernels that have been ground into a fine or medium texture.
  • Steel-ground yellow cornmeal, which is common mostly in the United States, has the husk and germ of the maize kernel almost completely removed. It is conserved for about a year if stored in an airtight container in a cool, dry place.
  • Stone-ground cornmeal retains a few of the hull and germ, lending a little more flavour and nutrition to recipes. It is more perishable, but will store longer if refrigerated. Notwithstanding it too can have a shelf life of a large number of months if kept in a reasonably cool place.
  • White cornmeal (mielie-meal), made from white corn, is more common in parts of Africa. It is additionally popular in the Southern United States for making cornbread.

Regional usage

Caribbean

  • Cou-cou - part of the national dish of Barbados, "cou-cou and flying fish".
  • Funchi additionally known as fungi/fungee - a cornmeal mush cooked and cooled into a stiff pudding, at times eaten with saltfish and/or pepperpot. It is consumed on the island of Curaçao and is part of the national dish of Antigua and Barbuda.

East Asia

  • Tie Bing (貼餅 sticking bread) - This product can either be fluffy like a mantou or more flatbread-like. It is traditionally stuck around the outer rim of a large wok while meat or fish is being cooked. Generally, an alkalizing agent such as baking soda is added to increase the nutrient value. It is additionally found in northern China.
  • Corn congee (棒子麵粥) - A porridge made from plain cornmeal. It is normally thinner than grits or polenta and is often eaten with Chinese pickles.
  • Wo tou (窩頭 nest head) - Shaped like a hollow cone, this cornbread looks like a bird's nest, after which it is named. It is commonly eaten in northern China, and might contain dried jujubes and additional flavouring agents.

Equatorial Africa

Southern Africa's Nshima cornmeal (top right corner), served with three relishes.

Europe

  • Arapash or harapash - Albania (similar to the Romanian style but often combined with lamb organs, or/and goat cheese)
  • Farina di granturco - Italy (not the same as farina, which is made from wheat)
  • G'omi ( Georgian: ღომი), mchadi (Georgian: მჭადი), tchvishtari - Georgia (g'omi is similar to polenta, mchadi - cornbread, tshvishtari - cheese cornbread). Known by different names in local languages (Abkhaz: абысҭаabysta, Adyghe: мамрысmamrys, Ingush: журан-хударjuran-hudar, Nogai: мамырза mamyrza, Ossetian: дзыккаdzykka or сера sera), it is additionally widespread in additional Caucasian cuisines.
  • Kachamak (качамак) - Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Serbia
  • Mălai - Romania (the cornmeal itself; prepared as mămăligă)
  • Polenta - southern Europe, especially Italy

Horn of Africa

Indian Ocean

This is a local dessert dish made from maize flour in which milk, sugar, dried sultanas and cardamon powder are cooked together. The cooked paste is poured on a tray and coconut powder is sprinkled thereon and left to cool. Simple and delicious, this is a popular dish loved by many. This dessert is often cut into triangular shapes and can be bought from food vendors in the streets of Port Louis and additionally in market fairs around the island.

Mesoamerica and South America

Grindstones inside Mingus Mill, in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina. Corn is placed in a hopper (top right) which slowly feeds it into the grindstone (center). The grindstone grinds the maize into cornmeal, and empties it into a bucket (lower left). The grindstones are turned by the mill's water-powered turbine.

North America

A maize muffin.

South Asia

In parts of northern India and Pakistan ground maize flour is used to make thick slabs of bread which can be eaten with a wide variety of curry dishes or it can be coated in clarified butter or ghee and eaten with yoghourt or lassie which is a yoghourt based drink especially in summer.