- Ecaterina Andronescu (born 1948), Romanian politician and engineer
- Ecaterina Arbore (c. 1874 – 1937), Romanian-Soviet communist activist and official
- Ecaterina Nazare (born 1953), Romanian actress
- Ecaterina Szabo (born 1967), Romanian-Hungarian gymnast
- Ecaterina Teodoroiu (1894–1917), Romanian heroine of World War II
- Ecaterina Varga (1802 – after 1852), Hungarian leader of the Transylvanian Miners' Movement
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