Hamilcar (Punic-Phoenician 𐤇𐤌𐤋𐤒𐤓𐤕 ḥmlqrt, Canaanite Hebrew אחי-מלקרת, meaning brother of Melqart, a Tyrian god) was a common name in the Punic culture. There are several different transcriptions into Greek and Roman scripts. The ruling families of ancient Carthage often named their members with the traditional name Hamilcar. For example:

The name has been adopted by other cultures. Amilcare was one of Benito Mussolini's given names, and was the forename of the composer Amilcare Ponchielli.