Lidiya might refer to:

  • Lidiya Alfeyeva (born 1946), a Soviet long jumper
  • Lidiya Ginzburg (1902–1990), a major Soviet literary critic and a survivor of the siege of Leningrad
  • Lidiya Grigoryeva (born 1974), a Russian long-distance runner from the Chuvashia region
  • Lidiya Krylova (born 1951), a Russian rower who competed for the Soviet Union in the 1976 Summer Olympics
  • Lidiya Masterkova (1927–2008), a Russian-born French painter, non-conformist artist in USSR
  • Lidiya Skoblikova (born 1939), the most successful Olympic speed skater in terms of Olympic gold medals
  • Lidiya Sukharevskaya (1909–1991), a Soviet stage actress and playwright renowned for her work with Nikolay Akimov and Andrey Goncharov
  • Lidiya Vertinskaya (born 1923), the Soviet/Russian actress and an artist

  • 3322 Lidiya (1975 XY1), a main-belt asteroid discovered in 1975