Nerd (adjective: nerdy) is a descriptive term, often used pejoratively, indicating a person that's overly intellectual, obsessive, or lacking social skills. Such a person might spend inordinate amounts of time on unpopular, little known, or non-mainstream activities, which are generally either highly technical, abstract, or relating to topics of fiction or fantasy, to the exclusion of more mainstream activities. Additionally, a large number of nerds are described as being shy, quirky, pedantic, and unattractive, and might have difficulty participating in, or even following, sports. Though originally derogatory, "Nerd" is a stereotypical term, but as with additional pejoratives, it has been reclaimed and redefined by a few as a term of pride and group identity.

People with autism, or its milder variant, Asperger's syndrome, are biologically disposed to have extreme S-brains. People described as nerds might stand squarely on the S-brain side of the spectrum, but not necessarily to such an extreme as to be diagnosed as Asperger's or autism. While not directly equatable with Asperger's, they have a lot in common.


The first documented appearance of the word "nerd" is as the name of a creature in Dr. Seuss's book If I Ran the Zoo (1950), in which the narrator Gerald McGrew claims that he would collect "a Nerkle, a Nerd, and a Seersucker too" for his imaginary zoo. The slang meaning of the term dates to the next year, 1951, when Newsweek magazine reported on its popular use as a synonym for "drip" or "square" in Detroit, Michigan. By the early 1960s, usage of the term had spread throughout the United States, and even as far as Scotland. At a few point, the word took on connotations of bookishness and social ineptitude.

An alternate spelling, as nurd or gnurd, additionally began to seem in the mid-1960s or early 1970s. Author Philip K. Dick claimed to have coined the nurd spelling in 1973, but its first recorded use appeared in a 1965 student publication at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Oral tradition there holds that the word is derived from "knurd" ("drunk" spelled backward), which was used to describe people who studied rather than partied. The term gnurd (spelled with the "g") was in use at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by 1965. The term nurd was additionally in use at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as early as 1971 but was used in the context for the proper name of a fictional character in a satirical "news" article.

The Online Etymology Dictionary speculates that the word is an alteration of the 1940s term nert (meaning "stupid or crazy person"), which is itself an alteration of "nut".

The term was popularised in the 1970s by its heavy use in the sitcom Happy Days.

Typical stereotype

Because of the nerd stereotype, a large number of smart people are often thought of as nerdy. This belief can be harmful, as it can cause high-school students to "switch off their lights" out of fear of being branded as one of them, and cause otherwise appealing people to be nerdy simply for their intellect. It was once thought that intellectuals were nerdy because they were envied. Notwithstanding Paul Graham stated in his essay, "Why Nerds are Unpopular", that intellect is neutral, meaning that you're neither loved nor despised for it. He additionally states that it is only the correlation that makes smart teens automatically seem nerdy, and that a nerd is someone that isn't socially adept enough. Additionally, he says that the reason why a large number of smart kids are unpopular is that they "don't have time for the activities required for popularity."

Stereotypical "nerd" appearance, often lampooned in caricatures, includes quite large glasses, braces, severe acne and pants worn high at the waist. In the media, a large number of nerds are white males, portrayed as being physically unfit, either overweight or skinny due to lack of physical exercise . It has been suggested by some, such as linguist Mary Bucholtz, that being a nerd might be a state of being "hyperwhite" and rejecting African-American culture and slang that "cool" white children use. Notwithstanding after the Revenge of the Nerds movie franchise (with multicultural nerds), and the introduction of the Steve Urkel character on the television series Family Matters, nerds have been seen in all races and colours as well as more recently being a frequent young Asian or Indian male stereotype in North America. Portrayal of "nerd girls", in films such as She's Out of Control, Welcome to the Dollhouse and She's All That depicts that smart but nerdy women might suffer later in life if they don't focus on improving their physical attractiveness.

In the United States, a 2010 study published in the Journal of International and Intercultural Communication indicated that Asian Americans are perceived as most likely to be nerds, followed by White Americans, while non-White Hispanics and Black Americans were perceived as least likely to be nerds. These stereotypes stem from concepts of Orientalism and Primitivism, as discussed in Ron Eglash's essay Race, Sex, and Nerds: From Black Geeks to Asian American Hipsters. Among Whites, Jews are perceived as the most nerdy and are stereotyped in similar ways to Asians.

Nerd pride

The rise of Silicon Valley and the American computer industry at large has allowed a large number of "nerdy" people to build up large fortunes. Many stereotypically "nerdy" interests, such as superhero and science fiction works, are now popular culture hits. Some measures of nerdiness are now allegedly considered desirable, as, to some, it suggests a person who's intelligent, respectful, interesting, and able to earn a large salary. Stereotypical nerd qualities are evolving, going from awkwardness and social ostracism to an allegedly more widespread acceptance and at times even celebration of their differences.

In the 1984 film Revenge of the Nerds Robert Carradine worked to embody the nerd stereotype; in doing so, he helped create a definitive image of nerds. Additionally, the storyline presaged, and might have helped inspire, the "nerd pride" that emerged in the 1990s. American Splendor regular Toby Radloff claims this was the movie that inspired him to become "The Genuine Nerd from Cleveland, Ohio." In the American Splendor film, Toby's friend, American Splendor author Harvey Pekar, was less receptive to the movie, believing it to be hopelessly idealistic, explaining that Toby, an adult low income file clerk, had nothing in common with the middle class kids in the film who would eventually attain college degrees, success, and cease being perceived as nerds. Many, however, seem to share Radloff's view, as "nerd pride" has become more widespread in the years since. MIT professor Gerald Sussman, for example, seeks to instil pride in nerds:

My idea is to present an image to children that it is good to be intellectual, and not to care about the peer pressures to be anti-intellectual. I want every child to turn into a nerd – where that means someone who prefers studying and learning to competing for social dominance, which can unfortunately cause the downward spiral into social rejection.

— Gerald Sussman, quoted by Katie Hafner, The New York Times, 29 August 1993

Bryan Caplan, a professor of economics at George Mason University, refers to himself as "an openly nerdy man" and has written of a "Jock/Nerd Theory of History". He believes that income redistribution is a tactic by Jocks to prevent Nerds from gaining power over them.

The popular computer-related news website Slashdot uses the tagline "News for nerds. Stuff that matters." The Charles J. Sykes quote "Be nice to nerds. Chances are you'll end up working for one" has been popularised on the Internet and incorrectly attributed to Bill Gates. In Spain, Nerd Pride Day has been observed on May 25 after 2006, the same day as Towel Day, another somewhat nerdy holiday. The date was picked because it's the anniversary of the release of Star Wars: A New Hope.

An episode from the animated series Freakazoid, titled "Nerdator", includes the use of nerds to power the mind of a Predator-like enemy. Towards the middle of the show, he gave this speech. :

...most nerds are shy ordinary-looking types with no interest in physical activity. But, what they lack in physical prowess they make up in brains. Tell me, who writes all the best selling books? Nerds. Who makes all the top grossing movies? Nerds. Who designs computer programmes so complex that only they can use them? Nerds. And who's running for high public office? No one but nerds. ... Without nerds to lead the way, the governments of the world will stumble, they'll be forced to seek guidance from good-looking, but vapid airheads.

The Danish reality TV show FC Zulu, known in the internationally franchised format as FC Nerds, established a format wherein a team of nerds, after two or three months of training, competes with a professional soccer team.

Some commentators consider that the word is devalued when applied to people who adopt a sub-cultural pattern of behaviour, rather than being reserved for people with a marked ability.

Although originally being predominately an American stereotype, Nerd culture has grown across the globe and is now more acceptable and common than ever. Australian events such as Oz Comic-Con (a large comic book and Cosplay convention, similar to San Diego Comic-Con International) and Supernova, are incredibly popular events among the culture of people who identify themselves as nerds. In 2016, Oz Comic-Con in Perth saw almost 20,000 cos-players and comic book fans meet to celebrate the event, hence being named a "professionally organised Woodstock for geeks".


People who tend to possess 'nerdy' characteristics can often be the subject of bullying in the workplace and in schools especially. With the rise of Cyberbullying, antisocial behaviour towards people described as nerdy continues. A 2012 study in a Victorian high school, reported that "72% of boys and 65 percent of girls" had experienced relational aggression. Nerds are often the target of bullying due to a range of reasons that might include, physical appearance or social background.

In film and television

Film has seen several memorable nerdy characters including, but not limited to: Anthony Michael Hall's character of Brian Johnson in The Breakfast Club, Fogell from Superbad (film), Peter Parker from the Spider-Man franchise, Hermione Granger from the Harry Potter franchise, Lewis Skolnick and Gilbert Lowe from Revenge of the Nerds, Steve Carell's character of Andy Stitzer in The 40-Year-Old Virgin, and the cast of The Big Bang Theory.