Netanyahu (Hebrew: נְתַנְיָהוּ, "God has given") is a surname.
- Benjamin Netanyahu (born 1949), Prime Minister of Israel 1996–1999 and again from March 31, 2009 to present
- Benzion Netanyahu (1910–2012), scholar of Jewish history, Zionist activist, professor emeritus of Cornell University, author of The Origins of the Inquisition in Fifteenth-Century Spain and other books
- Elisha Netanyahu (1912–1986), Israeli mathematician at the Technion, brother of Benzion Netanyahu
- Iddo Netanyahu (born 1952), Israeli radiologist, author, and playwright
- Nathan Netanyahu (born 1951), Professor of computer science at Bar-Ilan University.
- Sara Netanyahu, wife of Benjamin Netanyahu
- Shoshana Netanyahu (b. 1923), former Israel Supreme Court justice
- Yonatan Netanyahu (1946–1976), Israeli special forces commander
Variations of the name are Netanyah or Netanya.