Ozone// (systematically named 1λ1,3λ1-trioxidane and catena-trioxygen), or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formulaO
3. It is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell. It is an allotrope of oxygen that's much less stable than the diatomic allotrope O
2, breaking down in the lower atmosphere to normal dioxygen. Ozone is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet light and additionally atmospheric electrical discharges, and is present in low concentrations throughout the Earth's atmosphere (stratosphere). In total, ozone makes up only ppm of the atmosphere. 0.6
Ozone's odour is sharp, reminiscent of chlorine, and detectable by a large number of people at concentrations of as little as ppb in air. Ozone's O3 structure was determined in 1865. The molecule was later proven to have a bent structure and to be 10 diamagnetic. In standard conditions, ozone is a pale blue gas that condenses at progressively cryogenic temperatures to a dark blue liquid and finally a violet-black solid. Ozone's instability with regard to more common dioxygen is such that both concentrated gas and liquid ozone might decompose explosively at elevated temperatures or fast warming to the boiling point. It is therefore used commercially only in low concentrations.
Ozone is a powerful oxidant (far more so than dioxygen) and has a large number of industrial and consumer applications related to oxidation. This same high oxidising potential, however, causes ozone to damage mucous and respiratory tissues in animals, and additionally tissues in plants, above concentrations of about . This makes ozone a potent respiratory hazard and pollutant near ground level. Notwithstanding the 100 ppbozone layer (a portion of the stratosphere with a higher concentration of ozone, from two to eight ppm) is beneficial, preventing damaging ultraviolet light from reaching the Earth's surface, to the benefit of both plants and animals.
The trivial nameozone is the most commonly used and preferred IUPAC name. The systematic names 1λ1,3λ1-trioxidane and catena-trioxygen, valid IUPAC names, are constructed according to the substitutive and additive nomenclatures, respectively. The name ozone derives from ozein (ὄζειν), the Greek verb for smell, referring to ozone's distinctive smell.
In appropriate contexts, ozone can be viewed as trioxidane with two hydrogen atoms removed, and as such, trioxidanylidene might be used as a context-specific systematic name, according to substitutive nomenclature. By default, these names pay no regard to the radicality of the ozone molecule. In even more specific context, this can additionally name the non-radical singlet ground state, whereas the diradical state is named trioxidanediyl.
Trioxidanediyl (or ozonide) is used, non-systematically, to refer to the substituent group (-OOO-). Care should be taken to avoid confusing the name of the group for the context-specific name for ozone given above.
In 1785, the Dutch chemist Martinus van Marum was conducting experiments involving electrical sparking above water when he noticed an unusual smell, which he attributed to the electrical reactions, failing to realise that he had in fact created ozone. A half century later, Christian Friedrich Schönbein noticed the same pungent odour and recognised it as the smell often following a bolt of lightning. In 1839, he succeeded in isolating the gaseous chemical and named it "ozone", from the Greek word ozein (ὄζειν) meaning "to smell". For this reason, Schönbein is generally credited with the discovery of ozone. The formula for ozone, O3, wasn't determined until 1865 by Jacques-Louis Soret and confirmed by Schönbein in 1867.
For much of the second half of the nineteenth century and well into the twentieth, ozone was considered a healthy component of the environment by naturalists and health-seekers. Beaumont, California had as its official slogan "Beaumont: Zone of Ozone", as evidenced on postcards and Chamber of Commerce letterhead. Naturalists working outdoors often considered the higher elevations beneficial because of their ozone content. "There is quite a different atmosphere [at higher elevation] with enough ozone to sustain the necessary energy [to work]", wrote naturalist Henry Henshaw, working in Hawaii. Seaside air was considered to be healthy because of its believed ozone content; but the smell giving rise to this belief is in fact that of halogenated seaweed metabolites.
In fact, even Benjamin Franklin believed that the presence of cholera was connected with the deficiency or lack of ozone in the atmosphere, a sentiment shared by the British Science Association (then known simply as the British Association).
Ozone is colourless or slightly bluish gas (blue when liquefied), slightly soluble in water and much more soluble in inert non-polar solvents such as carbon tetrachloride or fluorocarbons, where it forms a blue solution. At 161 K (−112 °C; −170 °F), it condenses to form a dark blue liquid. It is dangerous to allow this liquid to warm to its boiling point, because both concentrated gaseous ozone and liquid ozone can detonate. At temperatures below 80 K (−193.2 °C; −315.7 °F), it forms a violet-black solid.
Most people can detect about 0.01 μmol/mol of ozone in air where it has a quite specific sharp odour somewhat resembling chlorine bleach. Exposure of 0.1 to 1 μmol/mol produces headaches, burning eyes and irritation to the respiratory passages. Even low concentrations of ozone in air are quite destructive to organic materials such as latex, plastics and animal lung tissue.
According to experimental evidence from microwave spectroscopy, ozone is a bent molecule, with C2vsymmetry (similar to the water molecule). The O – O distances are 127.2 pm (1.272 Å). The O – O – O angle is 116.78°. The central atom is sp² hybridised with one lone pair. Ozone is a polar molecule with a dipole moment of 0.53 D. The molecule can be represented as a resonance hybrid with two contributing structures, each with a single bond on one side and double bond on the other. The arrangement possesses an overall bond order of 1.5 for both sides.
Ozone is among the most powerful oxidizing agents known, far stronger than O2. It is additionally unstable at high concentrations, decaying to ordinary diatomic oxygen. It has a varying half-life length, depending upon atmospheric conditions (temperature, humidity, and air movement). In a sealed chamber with a fan that moves the gas, ozone has a half-life of approximately a day at room temperature. Some unverified claims imply that ozone can have a half life as short as a half an hour under atmospheric conditions.
- 2 O
3 → 3 O
Ozone can additionally be produced electrochemically at the anode of an electrochemical cell from oxygen. This reaction can be used to create smaller quantities of ozone for research purposes.
O3(g) + 2H+ + 2e- ←→ O2(g) + H20 E°= 2.075V
This reaction can be observed as an unwanted reaction in a Hoffman gas apparatus throughout the electrolysis of water when the voltage is set above the necessary voltage.
- Cu + O
3 → CuO + O
With nitrogen and carbon compounds
- NO + O
3 → NO
2 + O
This reaction is accompanied by chemiluminescence. The NO
2 can be further oxidized:
2 + O
3 → NO
3 + O
3 formed can react with NO
2 to form N
Solid nitronium perchlorate can be made from NO2, ClO2, and O
2 + ClO
2 + 2 O
3 → NO
4 + 2 O
- 2 NH
3 + 4 O
3 → NH
3 + 4 O
2 + H
- C + 2 O
3 → CO
2 + 2 O
With sulphur compounds
- PbS + 4 O3 → PbSO4 + 4 O2
- S + H2O + O3 → H2SO4
- 3 SO2 + 3 H2O + O3 → 3 H2SO4
- H2S + O3 → SO2 + H2O
- H2S + O3 → S + O2 + H2O
- 3 H2S + 4 O3 → 3 H2SO4
With alkenes and alkynes
Alkenes can be oxidatively cleaved by ozone, in a process called ozonolysis, giving alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids, depending on the second step of the workup.
Usually ozonolysis is carried out in a solution of dichloromethane, at a temperature of −78oC. After a sequence of cleavage and rearrangement, an organic ozonide is formed. With reductive workup (e.g. zinc in acetic acid or dimethyl sulfide), ketones and aldehydes will be formed, with oxidative workup (e.g. aqueous or alcoholic hydrogen peroxide), carboxylic acids will be formed.
Ozone can oxidise salt to hypochlorite at room temperature.
O3 + NaCl → NaOCl + O2
- 3 SnCl2 + 6 HCl + O
3 → 3 SnCl4 + 3 H2O
- I2 + 6 HClO4 + O3 → 2 I(ClO4)3 + 3 H2O
Ozone can be used for combustion reactions and combustible gases; ozone provides higher temperatures than burning in dioxygen (O2). The following is a reaction for the combustion of carbon subnitride which can additionally cause higher temperatures:
- 3 C
2 + 4 O
3 → 12 CO + 3 N
- H + O
3 → HO2 + O
- 2 HO2 → H
Reduction to ozonides
Reduction of ozone gives the ozonide anion, O−
3. Derivatives of this anion are explosive and must be stored at cryogenic temperatures. Ozonides for all the alkali metals are known. KO3, RbO3, and CsO3 can be prepared from their respective superoxides:
- KO2 + O3 → KO3 + O2
Although KO3 can be formed as above, it can additionally be formed from potassium hydroxide and ozone:
- 2 KOH + 5 O3 → 2 KO3 + 5 O2 + H2O
NaO3 and LiO3 must be prepared by action of CsO3 in liquid NH3 on an ion exchange resin containing Na+ or Li+ ions:
- CsO3 + Na+ → Cs+ + NaO3
A solution of calcium in ammonia reacts with ozone to give to ammonium ozonide and not calcium ozonide:
- 3 Ca + 10 NH3 + 6 O
3 → Ca·6NH3 + Ca(OH)2 + Ca(NO3)2 + 2 NH4O3 + 2 O2 + H2
- 2 Fe2+ + O3 + 5 H2O → 2 Fe(OH)3(s) + O2 + 4 H+
- 2 Mn2+ + 2 O3 + 4 H2O → 2 MnO(OH)2(s) + 2 O2 + 4 H+
- 3 O
3 + H2S → 3 H2SO3 + 3 O2
These three reactions are central in the use of ozone based well water treatment.
- CN− + O3 → CNO−
Ozone will additionally completely decompose urea:
- (NH2)2CO + O3 → N2 + CO2 + 2 H2O
Ozone is a bent triatomic molecule with three vibrational modes: the symmetric stretch (1103.157 cm−1), bend (701.42 cm−1) and antisymmetric stretch (1042.096 cm−1). The symmetric stretch and bend are weak absorbers, but the antisymmetric stretch is strong and responsible for ozone being an important minor greenhouse gas. This IR band is additionally used to detect ambient and atmospheric ozone although UV based measurements are more common.
The electronic spectrum of ozone is quite complex. An overview can be seen at the MPI Mainz UV/VIS Spectral Atlas of Gaseous Molecules of Atmospheric Interest.
All of the bands are dissociative, meaning that the molecule falls apart to O + O2 after absorbing a photon. The most important absorption is the Hartley band, extending from slightly above 300 nm down to slightly above 200 nm. It is this band that's responsible for absorbing UV C in the stratosphere.
On the high wavelength side, the Hartley band transitions to the so-called Huggins band, which falls off rapidly until disappearing by ~360 nm. Above 400 nm, extending well out into the NIR, are the Chappius and Wulf bands. There, unstructured absorption bands are useful for detecting high ambient concentrations of ozone, but are so weak that they don't have much practical effect.
There are additional absorption bands in the far UV, which increase slowly from 200 nm down to reaching a maximum at ~120 nm.
Ozone in Earth's atmosphere
The standard way to express total ozone levels (the amount of ozone in a given vertical column) in the atmosphere is by using Dobson units. Point measurements are reported as mole fractions in nmol/mol (parts per billion, ppb) or as concentrations in μg/m3. The study of ozone concentration in the atmosphere started in the 1920s.
Location and production
The highest levels of ozone in the atmosphere are in the stratosphere, in a region additionally known as the ozone layer between about 10 km and 50 km above the surface (or between about 6 and 31 miles). Notwithstanding even in this "layer", the ozone concentrations are only two to eight parts per million, so most of the oxygen there remains of the dioxygen type.
Ozone in the stratosphere is mostly produced from short-wave ultraviolet rays between 240 and 160 nm. Oxygen starts to absorb weakly at 240 nm in the Herzberg bands, but most of the oxygen is dissociated by absorption in the strong Schumann–Runge bands between 200 and 160 nm where ozone doesn't absorb. While shorter wavelength light, extending to even the X-Ray limit, is energetic enough to dissociate molecular oxygen, there's relatively little of it, and, the strong solar emission at Lyman-alpha, 121 nm, falls at a point where molecular oxygen absorption is a minimum.
The process of ozone creation and destruction is called the Chapman cycle and starts with the photolysis of molecular oxygen
2 + photon (radiation λ < 240 nm) → 2 O
followed by reaction of the oxygen atom with another molecule of oxygen to form ozone.
- O + O
2 + M → O
3 + M
where "M" denotes the third body that carries off the excess energy of the reaction. The ozone molecule can then absorb a UVC photon and dissociate
3 → O + O
2 + kinetic energy
The excess kinetic energy heats the stratosphere when the O atoms and the molecular oxygen fly apart and collide with additional molecules. This conversion of UV light into kinetic energy warms the stratosphere. The oxygen atoms produced in the photolysis of ozone then react back with additional oxygen molecule as in the previous step to form more ozone. In the clear atmosphere, with only nitrogen and oxygen, ozone can react with the atomic oxygen to form two molecules of O2
3 + O → 2 O
An estimate of the rate of this termination step to the cycling of atomic oxygen back to ozone can be found simply by taking the ratios of the concentration of O2 to O3. The termination reaction is catalysed by the presence of certain free radicals, of which the most important are hydroxyl (OH), nitric oxide (NO) and atomic chlorine (Cl) and bromine (Br). In recent decades, the amount of ozone in the stratosphere has been declining, mostly because of emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and similar chlorinated and brominated organic molecules, which have increased the concentration of ozone-depleting catalysts above the natural background.
Importance to surface-dwelling life on Earth
Ozone in the ozone layer philtres out sunlight wavelengths from about 200 nm UV rays to 315 nm, with ozone peak absorption at about 250 nm. This ozone UV absorption is important to life, after it extends the absorption of UV by ordinary oxygen and nitrogen in air (which absorb all wavelengths < 200 nm) through the lower UV-C (200–280 nm) and the entire UV-B band (280–315 nm). The small unabsorbed part that remains of UV-B after passage through ozone causes sunburn in humans, and direct DNA damage in living tissues in both plants and animals. Ozone's effect on mid-range UV-B rays is illustrated by its effect on UV-B at 290 nm, which has a radiation intensity 350 million times as powerful at the top of the atmosphere as at the surface. Nevertheless, enough of UV-B radiation at similar frequency reaches the ground to cause a few sunburn, and these same wavelengths are additionally among those responsible for the production of vitamin D in humans.
The ozone layer has little effect on the longer UV wavelengths called UV-A (315–400 nm), but this radiation doesn't cause sunburn or direct DNA damage, and while it probably does cause long-term skin damage in certain humans, it isn't as dangerous to plants and to the health of surface-dwelling organisms on Earth in general (see ultraviolet for more information on near ultraviolet).
Low level ozone
Low level ozone (or tropospheric ozone) is an atmospheric pollutant. It isn't emitted directly by car engines or by industrial operations, but formed by the reaction of sunlight on air containing hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides that react to form ozone directly at the source of the pollution or a large number of km down wind.
Ozone reacts directly with a few hydrocarbons such as aldehydes and thus begins their removal from the air, but the products are themselves key components of smog. Ozone photolysis by UV light leads to production of the hydroxyl radical HO• and this plays a part in the removal of hydrocarbons from the air, but is additionally the first step in the creation of components of smog such as peroxyacyl nitrates, which can be powerful eye irritants. The atmospheric lifetime of tropospheric ozone is about 22 days; its main removal mechanisms are being deposited to the ground, the above-mentioned reaction giving HO•, and by reactions with OH and the peroxy radical HO2•.
There is evidence of significant reduction in agricultural yields because of increased ground-level ozone and pollution which interferes with photosynthesis and stunts overall growth of a few plant species. The United States Environmental Protection Agency is proposing a secondary regulation to reduce crop damage, in addition to the primary regulation designed for the protection of human health.
Certain examples of cities with elevated ozone readings are Houston, Texas, and Mexico City, Mexico. Houston has a reading of around 41 nmol/mol, while Mexico City is far more hazardous, with a reading of about 125 nmol/mol.
Ozone gas attacks any polymer possessing olefinic or double bonds within its chain structure, such as natural rubber, nitrile rubber, and styrene-butadiene rubber. Products made using these polymers are especially susceptible to attack, which causes cracks to grow longer and deeper with time, the rate of crack growth depending on the load carried by the rubber component and the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere. Such materials can be protected by adding antiozonants, such as waxes, which bond to the surface to create a protective film or blend with the material and provide long term protection. Ozone cracking used to be a serious problem in car tyres for example, but the problem is now seen only in quite old tires. On the additional hand, a large number of critical products, like gaskets and O-rings, might be attacked by ozone produced within compressed air systems. Fuel lines made of reinforced rubber are additionally susceptible to attack, especially within the engine compartment, where a few ozone is produced by electrical components. Storing rubber products in close proximity to a DCelectric motor can accelerate ozone cracking. The commutator of the motor generates sparks which in turn produce ozone.
Ozone as a greenhouse gas
Although ozone was present at ground level before the Industrial Revolution, peak concentrations are now far higher than the pre-industrial levels, and even background concentrations well away from sources of pollution are substantially higher. Ozone acts as a greenhouse gas, absorbing a few of the infrared energy emitted by the earth. Quantifying the greenhouse gas potency of ozone is difficult because it isn't present in uniform concentrations across the globe. Notwithstanding the most widely accepted scientific assessments relating to climate change (e.g. the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeThird Assessment Report) suggest that the radiative forcing of tropospheric ozone is about twenty-five percent that of carbon dioxide.
The annual global warming potential of tropospheric ozone is between 918–1022 tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent/tons tropospheric ozone. This means on a per-molecule basis, ozone in the troposphere has a radiative forcing effect roughly 1,000 times as strong as carbon dioxide. Notwithstanding tropospheric ozone is a short-lived greenhouse gas, which decays in the atmosphere much more quickly than carbon dioxide. This means that over a 20-year span, the global warming potential of tropospheric ozone is much less, roughly 62 to 69 tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent / tonne tropospheric ozone.
Because of its short-lived nature, tropospheric ozone doesn't have strong global effects, but has quite strong radiative forcing effects on regional scales. In fact, there are regions of the world where tropospheric ozone has a radiative forcing up to 150% of carbon dioxide.
Ozone air pollution
Ozone precursors are a group of pollutants, predominantly those emitted throughout the combustion of fossil fuels. Ground-level ozone pollution (tropospheric ozone) is created near the Earth's surface by the action of daylight UV rays on these precursors. The ozone at ground level is primarily from fossil fuel precursors, but methane is a natural precursor, and the quite low natural background level of ozone at ground level is considered safe. This section examines the health impacts of fossil fuel burning, which raises ground level ozone far above background levels.
There is a great deal of evidence to show that ground level ozone can harm lung function and irritate the respiratory system. Exposure to ozone (and the pollutants that produce it) is linked to premature death, asthma, bronchitis, heart attack, and additional cardiopulmonary problems.
Long-term exposure to ozone has been shown to increase risk of death from respiratory illness. A study of 450,000 people living in United States cities saw a significant correlation between ozone levels and respiratory illness over the 18-year follow-up period. The study revealed that people living in cities with high ozone levels, such as Houston or Los Angeles, had an over thirty percent increased risk of dying from lung disease.
Air quality guidelines such as those from the World Health Organization, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union are based on detailed studies designed to identify the levels that can cause measurable ill health effects.
According to scientists with the US EPA, susceptible people can be adversely affected by ozone levels as low as 40 nmol/mol. In the EU, the current target value for ozone concentrations is 120 µg/m3 which is about 60 nmol/mol. This target applies to all member states in accordance with Directive 2008/50/EC. Ozone concentration is measured as a maximum daily mean of 8 hour averages and the target shouldn't be exceeded on more than 25 calendar days per year, starting from January 2010. Whilst the directive requires in the future a strict compliance with 120 µg/m3 limit (i.e. mean ozone concentration not to be exceeded on any day of the year), there's no date set for this requirement and this is treated as a long-term objective.
In the USA, the Clean Air Act directs the EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for several pollutants, including ground-level ozone, and counties out of compliance with these standards are required to take steps to reduce their levels. In May 2008, under a court order, the EPA lowered its ozone standard from 80 nmol/mol to 75 nmol/mol. The move proved controversial, after the Agency's own scientists and advisory board had recommended lowering the standard to 60 nmol/mol. Many public health and environmental groups additionally supported the 60 nmol/mol standard, and the World Health Organization recommends 51 nmol/mol.
On January 7, 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for the pollutant ozone, the principal component of smog:
- ... EPA proposes that the level of the 8-hour primary standard, which was set at 0.075 μmol/mol in the 2008 final rule, should instead be set at a lower level within the range of 0.060 to 0.070 μmol/mol, to provide increased protection for children and additional ‘‘at risk’’ populations against an array of O
3 – related adverse health effects that range from decreased lung function and increased respiratory symptoms to serious indicators of respiratory morbidity including emergency department visits and hospital admissions for respiratory causes, and possibly cardiovascular-related morbidity as well as total non- accidental and cardiopulmonary mortality....
On October 26, 2015, the EPA published a final rule with an effective date of December 28, 2015 that revised the 8-hour primary NAAQS from 0.075 ppm to 0.070 ppm.
The EPA has developed an Air Quality Index (AQI) to help explain air pollution levels to the general public. Under the current standards, eight-hour average ozone mole fractions of 85 to 104 nmol/mol are described as "unhealthy for sensitive groups", 105 nmol/mol to 124 nmol/mol as "unhealthy", and 125 nmol/mol to 404 nmol/mol as "very unhealthy".
Ozone can additionally be present in indoor air pollution, partly as a result of electronic equipment such as photocopiers. A connexion has additionally been known to exist between the increased pollen, fungal spores, and ozone caused by thunderstorms and hospital admissions of asthma sufferers.
In the Victorian era, one British folk myth held that the smell of the sea was caused by ozone. In fact, the characteristic "smell of the sea" is caused by dimethyl sulfide, a chemical generated by phytoplankton. Victorian British folk considered the resulting smell "bracing".
Ozone production rises throughout heat waves, because plants absorb less ozone. It is estimated that curtailed ozone absorption by plants was responsible for the loss of 460 lives in the UK in the hot summer of 2006. A similar investigation to assess the joint effects of ozone and heat throughout the European heat waves in 2003, concluded that these appear to be additive.
Ozone, along with reactive forms of oxygen such as superoxide, singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorite ions, is naturally produced by white blood cells and additional biological systems (such as the roots of marigolds) as a means of destroying foreign bodies. Ozone reacts directly with organic double bonds. Also, when ozone breaks down to dioxygen it gives rise to oxygen free radicals, which are highly reactive and capable of damaging a large number of organic molecules. Moreover, it is believed that the powerful oxidising properties of ozone might be a contributing factor of inflammation. The cause-and-effect relationship of how the ozone is created in the body and what it does is still under consideration and still subject to various interpretations, after additional body chemical processes can trigger a few of the same reactions. A team headed by Paul Wentworth Jr. of the Department of Chemistry at the Scripps Research Institute has shown evidence linking the antibody-catalyzed water-oxidation pathway of the human immune response to the production of ozone. In this system, ozone is produced by antibody-catalyzed production of trioxidane from water and neutrophil-produced singlet oxygen.
When inhaled, ozone reacts with compounds lining the lungs to form specific, cholesterol-derived metabolites that are thought to facilitate the build-up and pathogenesis of atherosclerotic plaques (a form of heart disease). These metabolites have been confirmed as naturally occurring in human atherosclerotic arteries and are categorised into a class of secosterols termed atheronals, generated by ozonolysis of cholesterol's double bond to form a 5,6 secosterol as well as a secondary condensation product via aldolization.
Ozone has been implicated to have an adverse effect on plant growth: "... ozone reduced total chlorophylls, carotenoid and carbohydrate concentration, and increased 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content and ethylene production. In treated plants, the ascorbate leaf pool was decreased, while lipid peroxidation and solute leakage were significantly higher than in ozone-free controls. The data indicated that ozone triggered protective mechanisms against oxidative stress in citrus."
Because of the strongly oxidising properties of ozone, ozone is a primary irritant, affecting especially the eyes and respiratory systems and can be hazardous at even low concentrations. The Canadian Center for Occupation Safety and Health reports that:
"Even quite low concentrations of ozone can be harmful to the upper respiratory tract and the lungs. The severity of injury depends on both by the concentration of ozone and the duration of exposure. Severe and permanent lung injury or death could result from even a quite short-term exposure to relatively low concentrations."
To protect workers potentially exposed to ozone, U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration has established a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 μmol/mol (29 CFR 1910.1000 table Z-1), calculated as an 8-hour time weighted average. Higher concentrations are especially hazardous and NIOSH has established an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Limit (IDLH) of 5 μmol/mol. Work environments where ozone is used or where it is likely to be produced should have adequate ventilation and it is prudent to have a monitor for ozone that will alarm if the concentration exceeds the OSHA PEL. Continuous monitors for ozone are available from several suppliers.
Elevated ozone exposure can occur on passenger aircraft, with levels depending on altitude and atmospheric turbulence. United States Federal Aviation Authority regulations set a limit of 250 nmol/mol with a maximum four-hour average of 100 nmol/mol. Some planes are equipped with ozone converters in the ventilation system to reduce passenger exposure.
Ozone generators are used to produce ozone for cleaning air or removing smoke odours in unoccupied rooms. These ozone generators can produce over 3 g of ozone per hour. Ozone often forms in nature under conditions where O2 won't react. Ozone used in industry is measured in μmol/mol (ppm, parts per million), nmol/mol (ppb, parts per billion), μg/m3, mg/h (milligrams per hour) or weight percent. The regime of applied concentrations ranges from one percent to five percent (in air) and from six percent to fourteen percent (in oxygen) for older generation methods. New electrolytic methods can achieve up twenty percent to thirty percent dissolved ozone concentrations in output water.
Temperature and humidity play a large role in how much ozone is being produced using traditional generation methods (such as corona discharge and ultraviolet light). Old generation methods will produce less than fifty percent of nominal capacity if operated with humid ambient air, as opposed to quite dry air. New generators, using electrolytic methods, can achieve higher purity and dissolution through using water molecules as the source of ozone production.
Corona discharge method
This is the most common type of ozone generator for most industrial and personal uses. While variations of the "hot spark" coronal discharge method of ozone production exist, including medical grade and industrial grade ozone generators, these units usually work by means of a corona discharge tube. They are typically cost-effective and don't require an oxygen source additional than the ambient air to produce ozone concentrations of 3–6%. Fluctuations in ambient air, due to weather or additional environmental conditions, cause variability in ozone production. Notwithstanding they additionally produce nitrogen oxides as a by-product. Use of an air dryer can reduce or eliminate nitric acid formation by removing water vapour and increase ozone production. Use of an oxygen concentrator can further increase the ozone production and further reduce the risk of nitric acid formation by removing not only the water vapor, but additionally the bulk of the nitrogen.
UV ozone generators, or vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ozone generators, employ a light source that generates a narrow-band ultraviolet light, a subset of that produced by the Sun. The Sun's UV sustains the ozone layer in the stratosphere of Earth.
While standard UV ozone generators tend to be less expensive, they usually produce ozone with a concentration of about 0.5% or lower. An Additional disadvantage of this method is that it requires the air (oxygen) to be exposed to the UV source for a longer amount of time, and any gas that isn't exposed to the UV source won't be treated. This makes UV generators impractical for use in situations that deal with rapidly moving air or water streams (in-duct air sterilization, for example). Production of ozone is one of the potential dangers of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. VUV ozone generators are used in swimming pool and spa applications ranging to millions of gallons of water. VUV ozone generators, unlike corona discharge generators, don't produce harmful nitrogen by-products and additionally unlike corona discharge systems, VUV ozone generators work extremely well in humid air environments. There is additionally not normally a need for expensive off-gas mechanisms, and no need for air driers or oxygen concentrators which require additional costs and maintenance.
In the cold plasma method, pure oxygen gas is exposed to a plasma created by dielectric barrier discharge. The diatomic oxygen is split into single atoms, which then recombine in triplets to form ozone.
Cold plasma machines utilise pure oxygen as the input source and produce a maximum concentration of about five percent ozone. They produce far greater quantities of ozone in a given space of time compared to ultraviolet production. Notwithstanding because cold plasma ozone generators are quite expensive, they're found less frequently than the previous two types.
The discharges manifest as filamentary transfer of electrons (micro discharges) in a gap between two electrodes. In order to evenly distribute the micro discharges, a dielectric insulator must be used to separate the metallic electrodes and to prevent arcing.
Some cold plasma units additionally have the capability of producing short-lived allotropes of oxygen which include O4, O5, O6, O7, etc. These species are even more reactive than ordinary O
Electrolytic ozone generation (EOG) splits water molecules into H2, O2, and O3. In most EOG methods, the hydrogen gas will be removed to leave oxygen and ozone as the only reaction products. Therefore, EOG can achieve higher dissolution in water without additional competing gases found in corona discharge method, such as nitrogen gases present in ambient air. This method of generation can achieve concentrations of 20–30% and is independent of air quality because water is used as the source material. Production of ozone electrolytically is typically unfavourable because of the high overpotential required to produce ozone as compared to oxygen. This is why ozone isn't produced throughout typical water electrolysis. Notwithstanding it is possible to increase the overpotential of oxygen by careful catalyst selection such that ozone is preferentially produced under electrolysis. Catalysts typically chosen for this approach are lead dioxide or boron-doped diamond.
Ozone can't be stored and transported like additional industrial gases (because it quickly decays into diatomic oxygen) and must therefore be produced on site. Available ozone generators vary in the arrangement and design of the high-voltage electrodes. At production capacities higher than 20 kg per hour, a gas/water tube heat-exchanger might be utilised as ground electrode and assembled with tubular high-voltage electrodes on the gas-side. The regime of typical gas pressures is around 2 bars (200 kPa) absolute in oxygen and 3 bars (300 kPa) absolute in air. Several megawatts of electrical power might be installed in large facilities, applied as one phase AC current at 50 to 8000 Hz and peak voltages between 3,000 and 20,000 volts. Applied voltage is usually inversely related to the applied frequency.
The dominating parameter influencing ozone generation efficiency is the gas temperature, which is controlled by cooling water temperature and/or gas velocity. The cooler the water, the better the ozone synthesis. The lower the gas velocity, the higher the concentration (but the lower the net ozone produced). At typical industrial conditions, almost ninety percent of the effective power is dissipated as heat and needs to be removed by a sufficient cooling water flow.
Because of the high reactivity of ozone, only a few materials might be used like stainless steel (quality 316L), titanium, aluminium (as long as no moisture is present), glass, polytetrafluorethylene, or polyvinylidene fluoride. Viton might be used with the restriction of constant mechanical forces and absence of humidity (humidity limitations apply depending on the formulation). Hypalon might be used with the restriction that no water come in contact with it, except for normal atmospheric levels. Embrittlement or shrinkage is the common mode of failure of elastomers with exposure to ozone. Ozone cracking is the common mode of failure of elastomer seals like O-rings.
Ozone might be formed from O
2 by electrical discharges and by action of high energy electromagnetic radiation. Unsuppressed arcing in electrical contacts, motor bushes, or mechanical switches breaks down the chemical bonds of the atmospheric oxygen surrounding the contacts [O
2 → 2O]. Free radicals of oxygen in and around the arc recombine to create ozone [O
3]. Certain electrical equipment generate significant levels of ozone. This is especially true of devices using high voltages, such as ionic air purifiers, laser printers, photocopiers, tasers and arc welders. Electric motors using brushes can generate ozone from repeated sparking inside the unit. Large motors that use brushes, such as those used by elevators or hydraulic pumps, will generate more ozone than smaller motors.
Ozone is similarly formed in the Catatumbo lightning storms phenomenon on the Catatumbo River in Venezuela, though ozone's instability makes it dubious that it has any effect on the ozonosphere. It is the world's largest single natural generator of ozone, lending calls for it to be designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
In the laboratory, ozone can be produced by electrolysis using a 9 volt battery, a pencil graphite rod cathode, a platinum wire anode and a 3 molarsulfuric acidelectrolyte. The half cell reactions taking place are:
- 3 H2O → O3 + 6 H+ + 6 e− (ΔEo = −1.53 V)
- 6 H+ + 6 e− → 3 H2 (ΔEo = 0 V)
- 2 H2O → O2 + 4 H+ + 4 e− (ΔEo = −1.23 V)
In the net reaction, three equivalents of water are converted into one equivalent of ozone and three equivalents of hydrogen. Oxygen formation is a competing reaction.
It can additionally be generated by a high voltagearc. In its simplest form, high voltage AC, such as the output of a Neon-sign transformer is connected to two metal rods with the ends placed sufficiently close to each additional to allow an arc. The resulting arc will convert atmospheric oxygen to ozone.
It is often desirable to contain the ozone. This can be done with an apparatus consisting of two concentric glass tubes sealed together at the top with gas ports at the top and bottom of the outer tube. The inner core should have a length of metal foil inserted into it connected to one side of the power source. The additional side of the power source should be connected to another piece of foil wrapped around the outer tube. A source of dry O
2 is applied to the bottom port. When high voltage is applied to the foil leads, electricity will discharge between the dry dioxygen in the middle and form O
3 and O
2 which will flow out the top port. The reaction can be summarised as follows:
- 3 O
2 — electricity → 2 O
The largest use of ozone is in the preparation of pharmaceuticals, synthetic lubricants, and a large number of additional commercially useful organic compounds, where it is used to sever carbon-carbon bonds. It can additionally be used for bleaching substances and for killing microorganisms in air and water sources. Many municipal drinking water systems kill bacteria with ozone instead of the more common chlorine. Ozone has a quite high oxidation potential. Ozone doesn't form organochlorine compounds, nor does it remain in the water after treatment. Ozone can form the suspected carcinogen bromate in source water with high bromide concentrations. The U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act mandates that these systems introduce an amount of chlorine to maintain a minimum of 0.2 μmol/mol residual free chlorine in the pipes, based on results of regular testing. Where electrical power is abundant, ozone is a cost-effective method of treating water, after it is produced on demand and doesn't require transportation and storage of hazardous chemicals. Once it has decayed, it leaves no taste or odour in drinking water.
Although low levels of ozone have been advertised to be of a few disinfectant use in residential homes, the concentration of ozone in dry air required to have a rapid, substantial effect on airborne pathogens exceeds safe levels recommended by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Environmental Protection Agency. Humidity control can vastly improve both the killing power of the ozone and the rate at which it decays back to oxygen (more humidity allows more effectiveness). Spore forms of most pathogens are quite tolerant of atmospheric ozone in concentrations where asthma patients start to have issues.
Industrially, ozone is used to:
- Disinfect laundry in hospitals, food factories, care homes etc.;
- Disinfect water in place of chlorine
- Deodorize air and objects, such as after a fire. This process is extensively used in fabric restoration
- Kill bacteria on food or on contact surfaces;
- Sanitize swimming pools and spas
- Kill insects in stored grain
- Scrub yeast and mould spores from the air in food processing plants;
- Wash fresh fruits and vegetables to kill yeast, mould and bacteria;
- Chemically attack contaminants in water (iron, arsenic, hydrogen sulfide, nitrites, and complex organics lumped together as "colour");
- Provide an aid to flocculation (agglomeration of molecules, which aids in filtration, where the iron and arsenic are removed);
- Manufacture chemical compounds via chemical synthesis
- Clean and bleach fabrics (the former use is utilised in fabric restoration; the latter use is patented);
- Act as an antichlor in chlorine-based bleaching;
- Assist in processing plastics to allow adhesion of inks;
- Age rubber samples to determine the useful life of a batch of rubber;
- Eradicate water borne parasites such as Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium in surface water treatment plants.
Many hospitals around the world use large ozone generators to decontaminate operating rooms between surgeries. The rooms are cleaned and then sealed airtight before being filled with ozone which effectively kills or neutralises all remaining bacteria.
Ozone is used as an alternative to chlorine or chlorine dioxide in the bleaching of wood pulp. It is often used in conjunction with oxygen and hydrogen peroxide to eliminate the need for chlorine-containing compounds in the manufacture of high-quality, white paper.
Devices generating high levels of ozone, a few of which use ionization, are used to sanitise and deodorise uninhabited buildings, rooms, ductwork, woodsheds, boats and additional vehicles.
In the U.S., air purifiers emitting low levels of ozone have been sold. This kind of air purifier is at times claimed to imitate nature's way of purifying the air without philtres and to sanitise both it and household surfaces. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that there's "evidence to show that at concentrations that don't exceed public health standards, ozone isn't effective at removing a large number of odor-causing chemicals" or "viruses, bacteria, mold, or additional biological pollutants". Furthermore, its report states that "results of a few controlled studies show that concentrations of ozone considerably higher than these [human safety] standards are possible even when a user follows the manufacturer’s operating instructions". A couple kept repeating health claims for the generator they sold, without supporting scientific studies. In 1998, a federal jury convicted them, among others things, of illegally distributing an ozone generator and of wire fraud.
Ozonated water is used to launder clothes and to sanitise food, drinking water, and surfaces in the home. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), it is "amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of ozone in gaseous and aqueous phases as an antimicrobial agent on food, including meat and poultry." Studies at California Polytechnic University demonstrated that 0.3 μmol/mol levels of ozone dissolved in filtered tapwater can produce a reduction of more than 99.99% in such food-borne microorganisms as salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7 and Campylobacter. This quantity is 20,000 times the WHO-recommended limits stated above. Ozone can be used to remove pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables.
Ozone is used in homes and hot tubs to kill bacteria in the water and to reduce the amount of chlorine or bromine required by reactivating them to their free state. Since ozone doesn't remain in the water long enough, ozone by itself is ineffective at preventing cross-contamination among bathers and must be used in conjunction with halogens. Gaseous ozone created by ultraviolet light or by corona discharge is injected into the water.
Ozone is additionally widely used in treatment of water in aquariums and fish ponds. Its use can minimise bacterial growth, control parasites, eliminate transmission of a few diseases, and reduce or eliminate "yellowing" of the water. Ozone mustn't come in contact with fish's gill structures. Natural salt water (with life forms) provides enough "instantaneous demand" that controlled amounts of ozone activate bromide ion to hypobromous acid, and the ozone entirely decays in a few seconds to minutes. If oxygen fed ozone is used, the water will be higher in dissolved oxygen, fish's gill structures will atrophy and they'll become dependent on higher dissolved oxygen levels.
Ozonation – a process of infusing water with ozone – can be used in aquaculture to facilitate organic breakdown. Ozone is additionally added to recirculating systems to reduce nitrite levels through conversion into nitrate. If nitrite levels in the water are high, nitrites will additionally accumulate in the blood and tissues of fish, where it interferes with oxygen transport (it causes oxidation of the heme-group of haemoglobin from ferrous (Fe2+
) to ferric (Fe3+
), making haemoglobin unable to bind O
2). Despite these obvious positive effects, ozone use in recirculation systems has been linked to reducing the level of bioavailable iodine in salt water systems, resulting in iodine deficiency symptoms such as goitre and decreased growth in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae.
Ozonate seawater is used for surface disinfection of haddock and Atlantic halibut eggs against nodavirus. Nodavirus is a lethal and vertically transmitted virus which causes severe mortality in fish. Haddock eggs shouldn't be treated with high ozone level as eggs so treated didn't hatch and died after 3–4 days.
Ozone application on freshly cut pineapple and banana shows increase in flavonoids and total phenol contents when exposure is up to 20 minutes. Decrease in ascorbic acid (one form of vitamin C) content is observed but the positive effect on total phenol content and flavonoids can overcome the negative effect. Tomatoes upon treatment with ozone shows an increase in β-carotene, lutein and lycopene. Notwithstanding ozone application on strawberries in pre-harvest period shows decrease in ascorbic acid content.
Ozone facilitates the extraction of a few heavy metals from soil using EDTA. EDTA forms strong, water-soluble coordination compounds with a few heavy metals (Pb, Zn) thereby making it possible to dissolve them out from contaminated soil. If contaminated soil is pre-treated with ozone, the extraction efficacy of Pb, Am and Pu increases by 11.0–28.9%, 43.5% and 50.7% respectively.
Various therapeutic uses for Ozone have been proposed, but aren't supported by peer-reviewed evidence and generally considered alternative medicine.
- Cyclic ozone
- Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS)
- Global warming
- Greenhouse gas
- International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer (September 16)
- Nitrogen oxides
- Ozone Action Day
- Ozone depletion, including the phenomenon known as the ozone hole.
- Ozone therapy
- Polymer degradation