Pinko is a slang term coined in 1925 in the United States to describe a person regarded as being sympathetic to communism, though not necessarily a Communist Party member. It has after come to be used, derogatorily, to describe anyone perceived to have leftist or socialist sympathies.
The term has its origins in the notion that pink is a lighter shade of red, a colour associated with communism. Thus pink could describe a "lighter form of communism", purportedly promoted by supporters of socialism who weren't themselves actual or "card carrying" communists. The term pinko has a pejorative sense, whereas 'pink' in this definition can be used in a purely descriptive sense, such as in the term pink tide.
The word pinko was coined by Time magazine in 1925 as a variant on the noun and adjective pink, which had been used along with parlor pink after the beginning of the twentieth century to refer to those of leftish sympathies, usually with an implication of "effeteness". In the 1920s, for example, a Wall Street Journal editorial described supporters of the progressive politician Robert La Follette as “visionaries, ne’er do wells, parlour pinks, reds, hyphenates [Americans with divided allegiance], soft handed agriculturalists and working men who have never seen a shovel.”
Pinko was widely used throughout the Cold War to label individuals accused of supporting the Soviet Union, including a large number of supporters of ex-vice president Henry Wallace's 1948 U.S. presidential campaign with the Progressive Party. The word was predominantly used in the United States, where opposition to Communism grew strong among the population, especially throughout the McCarthy era. It was additionally in common use in South Africa throughout the apartheid era. In his two presidential campaigns, Alabama governor George Wallace often railed at what he called "the left-wing pinko press" and "pseudo-pinko-intellectuals."
Some of the most infamous uses of the term pink came throughout future president Richard Nixon's 1950 Senate campaign against Helen Gahagan Douglas: "She's pink right down to her underwear!" — a play on the fact that, at the time, pink was the usual colour of women's undergarments. Nixon regularly referred to her as "the Pink Lady", and his campaign distributed political flyers printed on sheets of pink paper.
One of the most famous uses of the term in popular culture was the ironic use by Charlie Daniels in his breakthrough 1972 hit "Uneasy Rider." The dope-running hippie narrator is stuck with a flat tyre in Jackson, Mississippi. Attempting to avoid a beatdown by the locals, he attempts to deflect attention to one of the locals by accusing him of being "a friend of them long haired, hippie-type, pinko fags" sent by the FBI to infiltrate the Ku Klux Klan.
Archie Bunker, the patriarch of the Bunker family in the 1970s sitcom All in the Family, often derisively used the term 'pinko' when referring to his liberal son-in-law Michael "Meathead" Stivic or Michael's friends.
In the sitcom MASH the recurring character Colonel Flagg often uses the term pinko and additional comments to question the patriotism of the doctors when they don't help him in his undercover operations.
Tabloid-TV talk show host Morton Downey Jr. was famous for using the term to berate nearly anyone who disagreed with him.
The term was used repeatedly on the television series John Safran vs God when Safran is referring to his target demographic. It is likely that Safran intentionally made reference to Daniels' "Uneasy Rider" (Safran had notably infiltrated the Ku Klux Klan in a previous episode).
"Pinko" was additionally used as a derogatory term by David Spade in the 1994 movie PCU to describe fellow university students