Science:58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organises knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences, which study the material universe; the social sciences, which study people and societies; and the formal sciences, which study logic and mathematics. The formal sciences are often excluded as they don't depend on empirical observations. Disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine, might additionally be considered to be applied sciences.

From classical antiquity through the nineteenth century, science as a type of knowledge was more closely linked to philosophy than it is now, and in the Western world the term "natural philosophy" once encompassed fields of study that are today associated with science, such as astronomy, medicine, and physics. Notwithstanding in the Middle East, throughout the Middle Ages foundations for the scientific method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his Book of Optics. While the classification of the material world by the ancient Indians and Greeks into air, earth, fire and water was more philosophical, mediaeval Middle Easterns used practical and experimental observation to classify materials.

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of physical laws. Over the course of the nineteenth century, the word "science" became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself as a disciplined way to study the natural world. It was throughout this time that scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, and physics reached their modern shapes. That same time period additionally included the origin of the terms "scientist" and "scientific community", the founding of scientific institutions, and the increasing significance of their interactions with society and additional aspects of culture.

History

Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in a large number of historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, so it now defines what science is in the strictest sense of the term.

Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge rather than a specialised word for the pursuit of such knowledge. In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to each additional and share. For example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought. This is shown by the construction of complex calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible, and buildings such as the Pyramids. Notwithstanding no consistent conscientious distinction was made between knowledge of such things, which are true in every community, and additional types of communal knowledge, such as mythologies and legal systems.

Antiquity

Maize, known in a few English-speaking countries as corn, is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times

Before the invention or discovery of the concept of "nature" (Ancient Greekphusis) by the Pre-Socratic philosophers, the same words tend to be used to describe the natural "way" in which a plant grows, and the "way" in which, for example, one tribe worships a particular god. For this reason it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense, and additionally the first people to clearly distinguish "nature" and "convention.": p.209 Science was therefore distinguished as the knowledge of nature and things which are true for every community, and the name of the specialised pursuit of such knowledge was philosophy — the realm of the first philosopher-physicists. They were mainly speculators or theorists, particularly interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature (artifice or technology, Greek technē) was seen by classical scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans. A clear-cut distinction between formal (eon) and empirical science (doxa) was made by the pre-Socratic philosopher Parmenides (fl. late sixth or early fifth century BCE). Although his work Peri Physeos (On Nature) is a poem, it might be viewed as an epistemological essay on method in natural science. Parmenides' ἐὸν might refer to a formal system or calculus which can describe nature more precisely than natural languages. "Physis" might be identical to ἐὸν.

Aristotle, 384 BCE – 322 BCE, one of the early figures in the development of the scientific method

A major turning point in the history of early philosophical science was the controversial but successful attempt by Socrates to apply philosophy to the study of human things, including human nature, the nature of political communities, and human knowledge itself. He criticised the older type of study of physics as too purely speculative, and lacking in self-criticism. He was particularly concerned that a few of the early physicists treated nature as if it can be assumed that it had no intelligent order, explaining things merely in terms of motion and matter. The study of human things had been the realm of mythology and tradition, however, so Socrates was executed as a heretic.: 30eAristotle later created a less controversial systematic programme of Socratic philosophy which was teleological and human-centred. He rejected a large number of of the conclusions of earlier scientists. For example, in his physics the sun goes around the earth, and a large number of things have it as part of their nature that they're for humans. Each thing has a formal cause and final cause and a role in the rational cosmic order. Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, according to what types of things they are. While the Socratics insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being (a study Aristotle divided into ethics and political philosophy), they didn't argue for any additional types of applied science.

Aristotle maintained the sharp distinction between science and the practical knowledge of artisans, treating theoretical speculation as the highest type of human activity, practical thinking about good living as something less lofty, and the knowledge of artisans as something only suitable for the lower classes. In contrast to modern science, Aristotle's influential emphasis was upon the "theoretical" steps of deducing universal rules from raw data, and didn't treat the gathering of experience and raw data as part of science itself.

Medieval science

De potentiis anime sensitive, Gregor Reisch (1504) Margarita philosophica. Medieval science postulated a ventricle of the brain as the location for our common sense, where the forms from our sensory systems commingled.
Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), 965–1039 Basra, Buyid Emirate. The Muslim scholar who's considered by a few to be the father of modern scientific methodology due to his emphasis on experimental data and reproducibility of its results.

During late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, the Aristotelian approach to inquiries on natural phenomena was used. Some ancient knowledge was lost, or in a few cases kept in obscurity, throughout the fall of the Roman Empire and periodic political struggles. Notwithstanding the general fields of science (or "natural philosophy" as it was called) and much of the general knowledge from the ancient world remained preserved though the works of the early Latin encyclopedists like Isidore of Seville. In the Byzantine empire, a large number of Greek science texts were preserved in Syriac translations done by groups such as the Nestorians and Monophysites. Many of these were later on translated into Arabic under the Caliphate, throughout which a large number of types of classical learning were preserved and in a few cases improved upon.

The House of Wisdom was established in Abbasid-era Baghdad, Iraq. It is considered to have been a major intellectual centre throughout the Islamic Golden Age, where Muslim scholars such as al-Kindi and Ibn Sahl in Baghdad and Ibn al-Haytham in Cairo flourished from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries until the Mongol sack of Baghdad. Ibn al-Haytham, known later to the West as Alhazen, furthered the Aristotelian viewpoint by emphasising experimental data.

In the later mediaeval period, as demand for translations grew, (for example, from the Toledo School of Translators), Western Europeans began collecting texts written not only in Latin, but additionally Latin translations from Greek, Arabic, and Hebrew. In particular, the texts of Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Euclid, preserved in the Houses of Wisdom, were sought amongst Catholic scholars. In Europe, the Latin translation of Alhazen's Book of Optics directly influenced Roger Bacon (13th century) in England, who argued for more experimental science as demonstrated by Alhazen. By the late Middle Ages, a synthesis of Catholicism and Aristotelianism known as Scholasticism was flourishing in Western Europe, which had become a new geographic centre of science, but all aspects of scholasticism were criticised in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

Renaissance and early modern science

Galen (129–c. 216) noted the optic chiasm is X-shaped. (Engraving from Vesalius, 1543)
Galileo Galilei, father of modern science.: Vol. 24, No. 1, p. 36

A. Mark Smith points out the perspectivist theory of vision, which pivots on three of Aristotle's four causes, formal, material, and final, "is remarkably economical, reasonable, and coherent." Although Alhacen knew that a scene imaged through an aperture is inverted, he argued that vision is about perception. This was overturned by Kepler,:p.102 who modelled the eye as a water-filled glass sphere with an aperture in front of it to model the entrance pupil. He found that all the light from a single point of the scene was imaged at a single point at the back of the glass sphere. The optical chain ends on the retina at the back of the eye and the image is inverted.

Copernicus formulated a heliocentric model of the solar system unlike the geocentric model of Ptolemy's Almagest.

Galileo made innovative use of experiment and mathematics. Notwithstanding he became persecuted after Pope Urban VIII blessed Galileo to write about the Copernican system. Galileo had used arguments from the Pope and put them in the voice of the simpleton in the work "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems," which greatly offended him.

In Northern Europe, the new technology of the printing press was widely used to publish a large number of arguments, including a few that disagreed widely with contemporary ideas of nature. René Descartes and Francis Bacon published philosophical arguments in favour of a new type of non-Aristotelian science. Descartes argued that mathematics can be used in order to study nature, as Galileo had done, and Bacon emphasised the importance of experiment over contemplation. Bacon questioned the Aristotelian concepts of formal cause and final cause, and promoted the idea that science should study the laws of "simple" natures, such as heat, rather than assuming that there's any specific nature, or "formal cause," of each complex type of thing. This new modern science began to see itself as describing "laws of nature." This updated approach to studies in nature was seen as mechanistic. Bacon additionally argued that science should aim for the first time at practical inventions for the improvement of all human life.

Age of Enlightenment

Isaac Newton, shown here in a 1689 portrait, made seminal contributions to classical mechanics, gravity, and optics. Newton shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of calculus.

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the project of modernity, as had been promoted by Bacon and Descartes, led to rapid scientific advance and the successful development of a new type of natural science, mathematical, methodically experimental, and deliberately innovative. Newton and Leibniz succeeded in developing a new physics, now referred to as classical mechanics, which can be confirmed by experiment and explained using mathematics. Leibniz additionally incorporated terms from Aristotelian physics, but now being used in a new non-teleological way, for example "energy" and "potential" (modern versions of Aristotelian "energeia and potentia"). In the style of Bacon, he assumed that different types of things all work according to the same general laws of nature, with no special formal or final causes for each type of thing. It is throughout this period that the word "science" gradually became more commonly used to refer to a type of pursuit of a type of knowledge, especially knowledge of nature — coming close in meaning to the old term "natural philosophy."

19th century

Charles Darwin in 1854, by then working towards publication of On the Origin of Species

Both John Herschel and William Whewell systematised methodology: the latter coined the term scientist. When Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species he established evolution as the prevailing explanation of biological complexity. His theory of natural selection provided a natural explanation of how species originated, but this only gained wide acceptance a century later. John Dalton developed the idea of atoms. The laws of thermodynamics and the electromagnetic theory were additionally established in the nineteenth century, which raised new questions which couldn't easily be answered using Newton's framework. The phenomena that would allow the deconstruction of the atom were discovered in the last decade of the nineteenth century: the discovery of X-rays inspired the discovery of radioactivity. In the next year came the discovery of the first subatomic particle, the electron.

Combustion and chemical reactions were studied by Michael Faraday and reported in his lectures before the Royal Institution: The Chemical History of a Candle, 1861

20th century and beyond

A simulated event in the CMS detector of the Large Hadron Collider, featuring a possible appearance of the Higgs boson

Einstein's theory of relativity and the development of quantum mechanics led to the replacement of classical mechanics with a new physics which contains two parts that describe different types of events in nature.

In the first half of the century the development of artificial fertilizer made global human population growth possible. At the same time, the structure of the atom and its nucleus was discovered, leading to the release of "atomic energy" (nuclear power). In addition, the extensive use of scientific innovation stimulated by the wars of this century led to antibiotics and increased life expectancy, revolutions in transportation (automobiles and aircraft), the development of ICBMs, a space race, and a nuclear arms race, all giving a widespread public appreciation of the importance of modern science.

Widespread use of integrated circuits in the last quarter of the twentieth century combined with communications satellites led to a revolution in information technology and the rise of the global internet and mobile computing, including smartphones.

More recently, it has been argued that the ultimate purpose of science is to make sense of human beings and our nature. For example, in his book Consilience, E. O. Wilson said "The human condition is the most important frontier of the natural sciences." :334

Scientific method

The scientific method seeks to explain the events of nature in a reproducible way. An explanatory thought experiment or hypothesis is put forward as explanation using principles such as parsimony (also known as "Occam's Razor") and are generally expected to seek consilience—fitting well with additional accepted facts related to the phenomena. This new explanation is used to make falsifiable predictions that are testable by experiment or observation. The predictions are to be posted before a confirming experiment or observation is sought, as proof that no tampering has occurred. Disproof of a prediction is evidence of progress. This is done partly through observation of natural phenomena, but additionally through experimentation that tries to simulate natural events under controlled conditions as appropriate to the discipline (in the observational sciences, such as astronomy or geology, a predicted observation might take the place of a controlled experiment). Experimentation is especially important in science to help establish causal relationships (to avoid the correlation fallacy).

When a hypothesis proves unsatisfactory, it is either modified or discarded. If the hypothesis survived testing, it might become adopted into the framework of a scientific theory, a logically reasoned, self-consistent model or framework for describing the behaviour of certain natural phenomena. A theory typically describes the behaviour of much broader sets of phenomena than a hypothesis; commonly, a large number of hypotheses can be logically bound together by a single theory. Thus a theory is a hypothesis explaining various additional hypotheses. In that vein, theories are formulated according to most of the same scientific principles as hypotheses. In addition to testing hypotheses, scientists might additionally generate a model, an attempt to describe or depict the phenomenon in terms of a logical, physical or mathematical representation and to generate new hypotheses that can be tested, based on observable phenomena.

While performing experiments to test hypotheses, scientists might have a preference for one outcome over another, and so it is important to ensure that science as a whole can eliminate this bias. This can be achieved by careful experimental design, transparency, and a thorough peer review process of the experimental results as well as any conclusions. After the results of an experiment are announced or published, it is normal practise for independent researchers to double-check how the research was performed, and to follow up by performing similar experiments to determine how dependable the results might be. Taken in its entirety, the scientific method allows for highly creative problem solving while minimising any effects of subjective bias on the part of its users (especially the confirmation bias).

Mathematics and formal sciences

Mathematics is essential to the sciences. One important function of mathematics in science is the role it plays in the expression of scientific models. Observing and collecting measurements, as well as hypothesising and predicting, often require extensive use of mathematics. For example, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus are all essential to physics. Virtually every branch of mathematics has applications in science, including "pure" areas such as number theory and topology.

Statistical methods, which are mathematical techniques for summarising and analysing data, allow scientists to assess the level of reliability and the range of variation in experimental results. Statistical analysis plays a fundamental role in a large number of areas of both the natural sciences and social sciences.

Computational science applies computing power to simulate real-world situations, enabling a better understanding of scientific problems than formal mathematics alone can achieve. According to the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, computation is now as important as theory and experiment in advancing scientific knowledge.

Whether mathematics itself is properly classified as science has been a matter of a few debate. Some thinkers see mathematicians as scientists, regarding physical experiments as inessential or mathematical proofs as equivalent to experiments. Others don't see mathematics as a science because it doesn't require an experimental test of its theories and hypotheses. Mathematical theorems and formulas are obtained by logical derivations which presume axiomatic systems, rather than the combination of empirical observation and logical reasoning that has come to be known as the scientific method. In general, mathematics is classified as formal science, while natural and social sciences are classified as empirical sciences.

Scientific community

The scientific community is the group of all interacting scientists. It includes a large number of sub-communities working on particular scientific fields, and within particular institutions; interdisciplinary and cross-institutional activities are additionally significant.

Branches and fields

The somatosensory system is located throughout our bodies but is integrated in the brain.

Scientific fields are commonly divided into two major groups: natural sciences, which study natural phenomena (including biological life), and social sciences, which study human behavior and societies. These are both empirical sciences, which means their knowledge must be based on observable phenomena and capable of being tested for its validity by additional researchers working under the same conditions. There are additionally related disciplines that are grouped into interdisciplinary applied sciences, such as engineering and medicine. Within these categories are specialised scientific fields that can include parts of additional scientific disciplines but often possess their own nomenclature and expertise.

Mathematics, which is classified as a formal science, has both similarities and differences with the empirical sciences (the natural and social sciences). It is similar to empirical sciences in that it involves an objective, careful and systematic study of an area of knowledge; it is different because of its method of verifying its knowledge, using a priori rather than empirical methods. The formal sciences, which additionally include statistics and logic, are vital to the empirical sciences. Major advances in formal science have often led to major advances in the empirical sciences. The formal sciences are essential in the formation of hypotheses, theories, and laws, both in discovering and describing how things work (natural sciences) and how people think and act (social sciences).

Apart from its broad meaning, the word "science" at times might specifically refer to fundamental sciences (maths and natural sciences) alone. Science schools or faculties within a large number of institutions are separate from those for medicine or engineering, each of which is an applied science.

Institutions

Learned societies for the communication and promotion of scientific thought and experimentation have existed after the Renaissance period. The oldest surviving institution is the Italian Accademia dei Lincei which was established in 1603. The respective National Academies of Science are distinguished institutions that exist in a number of countries, beginning with the British Royal Society in 1660 and the French Académie des Sciences in 1666.

International scientific organizations, such as the International Council for Science, have after been formed to promote cooperation between the scientific communities of different nations. Many governments have dedicated agencies to support scientific research. Prominent scientific organisations include the National Science Foundation in the U.S., the National Scientific and Technical Research Council in Argentina, CSIRO in Australia, Centre national de la recherche scientifique in France, the Max Planck Society and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in Germany, and CSIC in Spain.

Literature

An enormous range of scientific literature is published. Scientific journals communicate and document the results of research carried out in universities and various additional research institutions, serving as an archival record of science. The first scientific journals, Journal des Sçavans followed by the Philosophical Transactions, began publication in 1665. Since that time the total number of active periodicals has steadily increased. In 1981, one estimate for the number of scientific and technical journals in publication was 11,500. The United States National Library of Medicine currently indexes 5,516 journals that contain articles on topics related to the life sciences. Although the journals are in 39 languages, 91 percent of the indexed articles are published in English.

Most scientific journals cover a single scientific field and publish the research within that field; the research is normally expressed in the form of a scientific paper. Science has become so pervasive in modern societies that it is generally considered necessary to communicate the achievements, news, and ambitions of scientists to a wider populace.

Science magazines such as New Scientist, Science & Vie, and Scientific American cater to the needs of a much wider readership and provide a non-technical summary of popular areas of research, including notable discoveries and advances in certain fields of research. Science books engage the interest of a large number of more people. Tangentially, the science fiction genre, primarily fantastic in nature, engages the public imagination and transmits the ideas, if not the methods, of science.

Recent efforts to intensify or develop links between science and non-scientific disciplines such as literature or more specifically, poetry, include the Creative Writing Science resource developed through the Royal Literary Fund.

Science and society

Women in science

Marie Curie was the first person to be awarded two Nobel Prizes, Physics in 1903 and Chemistry in 1911

Science has historically been a male-dominated field, with a few notable exceptions. Women faced considerable discrimination in science, much as they did in additional areas of male-dominated societies, such as frequently being passed over for job opportunities and denied credit for their work. For example, Christine Ladd (1847–1930) was able to enter a PhD programme as "C. Ladd"; Christine "Kitty" Ladd completed the requirements in 1882, but was awarded her degree only in 1926, after a career which spanned the algebra of logic (see truth table), colour vision, and psychology. Her work preceded notable researchers like Ludwig Wittgenstein and Charles Sanders Peirce. The achievements of women in science have been attributed to their defiance of their traditional role as labourers within the domestic sphere.

In the late twentieth century, active recruitment of women and elimination of institutional discrimination on the basis of sex greatly increased the number of women scientists, but large gender disparities remain in a few fields; over half of new biologists are female, while eighty percent of PhDs in physics are given to men. Feminists claim this is the result of culture rather than an innate difference between the sexes, and a few experiments have shown that parents challenge and explain more to boys than girls, asking them to reflect more deeply and logically.: 258–261. In the early part of the twenty-first century, in America, women earned 50.3% bachelor's degrees, 45.6% master's degrees, and 40.7% of PhDs in science and engineering fields with women earning more than half of the degrees in three fields: Psychology (about 70%), Social Sciences (about 50%), and Biology (about 50-60%). Notwithstanding when it comes to the Physical Sciences, Geosciences, Math, Engineering, and Computer Science, women earned less than half the degrees. Notwithstanding lifestyle choice additionally plays a major role in female engagement in science; women with young children are twenty-eight percent less likely to take tenure-track positions due to work-life balance issues, and female graduate students' interest in careers in research declines dramatically over the course of graduate school, whereas that of their male colleagues remains unchanged.

Science policy

President Clinton meets the 1998 U.S. Nobel Prize winners in the White House

Science policy is an area of public policy concerned with the policies that affect the conduct of the scientific enterprise, including research funding, often in pursuance of additional national policy goals such as technological innovation to promote commercial product development, weapons development, health care and environmental monitoring. Science policy additionally refers to the act of applying scientific knowledge and consensus to the development of public policies. Science policy thus deals with the entire domain of issues that involve the natural sciences. In accordance with public policy being concerned about the well-being of its citizens, science policy's goal is to consider how science and technology can best serve the public.

Statepolicy has influenced the funding of public works and science for thousands of years, dating at least from the time of the Mohists, who inspired the study of logic throughout the period of the Hundred Schools of Thought, and the study of defensive fortifications throughout the Warring States period in China. In Great Britain, governmental approval of the Royal Society in the seventeenth century recognised a scientific community which exists to this day. The professionalisation of science, begun in the nineteenth century, was partly enabled by the creation of scientific organisations such as the National Academy of Sciences, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, and state funding of universities of their respective nations. Public policy can directly affect the funding of capital equipment and intellectual infrastructure for industrial research by providing tax incentives to those organisations that fund research. Vannevar Bush, director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development for the United States government, the forerunner of the National Science Foundation, wrote in July 1945 that "Science is a proper concern of government."

Science and technology research is often funded through a competitive process in which potential research projects are evaluated and only the most promising receive funding. Such processes, which are run by government, corporations, or foundations, allocate scarce funds. Total research funding in most developed countries is between 1.5% and three percent of GDP. In the OECD, around two-thirds of research and development in scientific and technical fields is carried out by industry, and twenty percent and ten percent respectively by universities and government. The government funding proportion in certain industries is higher, and it dominates research in social science and humanities. Similarly, with a few exceptions (e.g. biotechnology) government provides the bulk of the funds for basic scientific research. In commercial research and development, all but the most research-oriented corporations focus more heavily on near-term commercialisation possibilities rather than "blue-sky" ideas or technologies (such as nuclear fusion).

Media perspectives

The mass media face a number of pressures that can prevent them from accurately depicting competing scientific claims in terms of their credibility within the scientific community as a whole. Determining how much weight to give different sides in a scientific debate might require considerable expertise regarding the matter. Few journalists have real scientific knowledge, and even beat reporters who know a great deal about certain scientific issues might be ignorant about additional scientific issues that they're suddenly asked to cover.

Political usage

Many issues damage the relationship of science to the media and the use of science and scientific arguments by politicians. As a quite broad generalisation, a large number of politicians seek certainties and facts whilst scientists typically offer probabilities and caveats. Notwithstanding politicians' ability to be heard in the mass media frequently distorts the scientific understanding by the public. Examples in the United Kingdom include the controversy over the MMRinoculation, and the 1988 forced resignation of a Government Minister, Edwina Currie, for revealing the high probability that battery farmed eggs were contaminated with Salmonella.

John Horgan, Chris Mooney, and researchers from the US and Canada have described Scientific Certainty Argumentation Methods (SCAMs), where an organisation or think tank makes it their only goal to cast doubt on supported science because it conflicts with political agendas. Hank Campbell and microbiologist Alex Berezow have described "feel-good fallacies" used in politics, especially on the left, where politicians frame their positions in a way that makes people feel good about supporting certain policies even when scientific evidence shows there's no need to worry or there's no need for dramatic change on current programs.: Vol. 78, No. 1. 2–38

Science and the public

Various activities are developed to facilitate communication between the general public and science/scientists, such as science outreach, public awareness of science, science communication, science festivals, citizen science, science journalism, public science, and popular science. See Science and the public for related concepts.

Science is represented by the 'S' in STEM fields.

Philosophy of science

Working scientists usually take for granted a set of basic assumptions that are needed to justify the scientific method: (1) that there's an objective reality shared by all rational observers; (2) that this objective reality is governed by natural laws; (3) that these laws can be discovered by means of systematic observation and experimentation. Philosophy of science seeks a deep understanding of what these underlying assumptions mean and whether they're valid.

The belief that scientific theories should and do represent metaphysical reality is known as realism. It can be contrasted with anti-realism, the view that the success of science doesn't depend on it being accurate about unobservable entities such as electrons. One form of anti-realism is idealism, the belief that the mind or consciousness is the most basic essence, and that each mind generates its own reality. In an idealistic world view, what's true for one mind need not be true for additional minds.

The Sand Reckoner is a work by Archimedes in which he sets out to determine an upper bound for the number of grains of sand that fit into the universe. In order to do this, he had to estimate the size of the universe according to the contemporary model, and invent a way to analyse extremely large numbers.

There are different schools of thought in philosophy of science. The most popular position is empiricism, which holds that knowledge is created by a process involving observation and that scientific theories are the result of generalisations from such observations. Empiricism generally encompasses inductivism, a position that tries to explain the way general theories can be justified by the finite number of observations humans can make and hence the finite amount of empirical evidence available to confirm scientific theories. This is necessary because the number of predictions those theories make is infinite, which means that they can't be known from the finite amount of evidence using deductive logic only. Many versions of empiricism exist, with the predominant ones being Bayesianism and the hypothetico-deductive method.:p236

Empiricism has stood in contrast to rationalism, the position originally associated with Descartes, which holds that knowledge is created by the human intellect, not by observation.:p20Critical rationalism is a contrasting 20th-century approach to science, first defined by Austrian-British philosopher Karl Popper. Popper rejected the way that empiricism describes the connexion between theory and observation. He claimed that theories aren't generated by observation, but that observation is made in the light of theories and that the only way a theory can be affected by observation is when it comes in conflict with it.:pp63–7 Popper proposed replacing verifiability with falsifiability as the landmark of scientific theories, and replacing induction with falsification as the empirical method.:p68 Popper further claimed that there's actually only one universal method, not specific to science: the negative method of criticism, trial and error. It covers all products of the human mind, including science, mathematics, philosophy, and art.

Another approach, instrumentalism, colloquially termed "shut up and multiply," emphasises the utility of theories as instruments for explaining and predicting phenomena. It views scientific theories as black boxes with only their input (initial conditions) and output (predictions) being relevant. Consequences, theoretical entities, and logical structure are claimed to be something that should simply be ignored and that scientists shouldn't make a fuss about (see interpretations of quantum mechanics). Close to instrumentalism is constructive empiricism, according to which the main criterion for the success of a scientific theory is whether what it says about observable entities is true.

Paul Feyerabend advanced the idea of epistemological anarchism, which holds that there are no useful and exception-free methodological rules governing the progress of science or the growth of knowledge, and that the idea that science can or should operate according to universal and fixed rules is unrealistic, pernicious and detrimental to science itself. Feyerabend advocates treating science as an ideology alongside others such as religion, magic, and mythology, and considers the dominance of science in society authoritarian and unjustified. He additionally contended (along with Imre Lakatos) that the demarcation problem of distinguishing science from pseudoscience on objective grounds isn't possible and thus fatal to the notion of science running according to fixed, universal rules. Feyerabend additionally stated that science doesn't have evidence for its philosophical precepts, particularly the notion of uniformity of law and process across time and space.

Finally, another approach often cited in debates of scientific skepticism against controversial movements like "creation science" is methodological naturalism. Its main point is that a difference between natural and supernatural explanations should be made, and that science should be restricted methodologically to natural explanations. That the restriction is merely methodological (rather than ontological) means that science shouldn't consider supernatural explanations itself, but shouldn't claim them to be wrong either. Instead, supernatural explanations should be left a matter of personal belief outside the scope of science. Methodological naturalism maintains that proper science requires strict adherence to empirical study and independent verification as a process for properly developing and evaluating explanations for observable phenomena. The absence of these standards, arguments from authority, biassed observational studies and additional common fallacies are frequently cited by supporters of methodological naturalism as characteristic of the non-science they criticize.

Certainty and science

The DNAdouble helix is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and a large number of viruses.

A scientific theory is empirical and is always open to falsification if new evidence is presented. That is, no theory is ever considered strictly certain as science accepts the concept of fallibilism. The philosopher of science Karl Popper sharply distinguished truth from certainty. He wrote that scientific knowledge "consists in the search for truth," but it "is not the search for certainty ... All human knowledge is fallible and therefore uncertain.":p4

New scientific knowledge rarely results in vast changes in our understanding. According to psychologist Keith Stanovich, it might be the media's overuse of words like "breakthrough" that leads the public to imagine that science is constantly proving everything it thought was true to be false.:119–138 While there are such famous cases as the theory of relativity that required a complete reconceptualization, these are extreme exceptions. Knowledge in science is gained by a gradual synthesis of information from different experiments by various researchers across different branches of science; it is more like a climb than a leap.:123 Theories vary in the extent to which they have been tested and verified, as well as their acceptance in the scientific community. For example, heliocentric theory, the theory of evolution, relativity theory, and germ theory still bear the name "theory" even though, in practice, they're considered factual. Philosopher Barry Stroud adds that, although the best definition for "knowledge" is contested, being skeptical and entertaining the possibility that one is incorrect is compatible with being correct. Ironically, then, the scientist adhering to proper scientific approaches will doubt themselves even once they possess the truth. The fallibilistC. S. Peirce argued that inquiry is the struggle to resolve actual doubt and that merely quarrelsome, verbal, or hyperbolic doubt is fruitless—but additionally that the inquirer should try to attain genuine doubt rather than resting uncritically on common sense. He held that the successful sciences trust not to any single chain of inference (no stronger than its weakest link) but to the cable of multiple and various arguments intimately connected.

Stanovich additionally asserts that science avoids searching for a "magic bullet"; it avoids the single-cause fallacy. This means a scientist wouldn't ask merely "What is the cause of ...", but rather "What are the most significant causes of ...". This is especially the case in the more macroscopic fields of science (e.g. psychology, cosmology).:141–147 Of course, research often analyses few factors at once, but these are always added to the long list of factors that are most important to consider.:141–147 For example, knowing the details of only a person's genetics, or their history and upbringing, or the current situation might not explain a behavior, but a deep understanding of all these variables combined can be quite predictive.

Fringe science, pseudoscience, and junk science

An area of study or speculation that masquerades as science in an attempt to claim a legitimacy that it wouldn't otherwise be able to achieve is at times referred to as pseudoscience, fringe science, or junk science. Physicist Richard Feynman coined the term "cargo cult science" for cases in which researchers believe they're doing science because their activities have the outward appearance of science but actually lack the "kind of utter honesty" that allows their results to be rigorously evaluated. Various types of commercial advertising, ranging from hype to fraud, might fall into these categories.

There can additionally be an element of political or ideological bias on all sides of scientific debates. Sometimes, research might be characterised as "bad science," research that might be well-intended but is actually incorrect, obsolete, incomplete, or over-simplified expositions of scientific ideas. The term "scientific misconduct" refers to situations such as where researchers have intentionally misrepresented their published data or have purposely given credit for a discovery to the wrong person.

Scientific practice

Astronomy became much more accurate after Tycho Brahe devised his scientific instruments for measuring angles between two celestial bodies, before the invention of the telescope. Brahe's observations were the basis for Kepler's laws.

Although encyclopaedias such as Pliny's (fl. 77 AD) Natural History offered purported fact, they proved unreliable. A sceptical point of view, demanding a method of proof, was the practical position taken to deal with unreliable knowledge. As early as 1000 years ago, scholars such as Alhazen (Doubts Concerning Ptolemy), Roger Bacon, Witelo, John Pecham, Francis Bacon (1605), and C. S. Peirce (1839–1914) provided the community to address these points of uncertainty. In particular, fallacious reasoning can be exposed, such as "affirming the consequent."

"If a man will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts; but if he'll be content to start with doubts, he shall end in certainties."

The methods of inquiry into a problem have been known for thousands of years, and extend beyond theory to practice. The use of measurements, for example, is a practical approach to settle disputes in the community.

John Ziman points out that intersubjective pattern recognition is fundamental to the creation of all scientific knowledge.:p44 Ziman shows how scientists can identify patterns to each additional across centuries; he refers to this ability as "perceptual consensibility.":p46 He then makes consensibility, leading to consensus, the touchstone of reliable knowledge.:p104

Basic and applied research

Anthropogenic pollution has an effect on the Earth's environment and climate

Although a few scientific research is applied research into specific problems, a great deal of our understanding comes from the curiosity-driven undertaking of basic research. This leads to options for technological advance that weren't planned or at times even imaginable. This point was made by Michael Faraday when allegedly in response to the question "what is the use of basic research?" he responded "Sir, what's the use of a new-born child?". For example, research into the effects of red light on the human eye's rod cells didn't seem to have any practical purpose; eventually, the discovery that our night vision isn't troubled by red light would lead search and rescue teams (among others) to adopt red light in the cockpits of jets and helicopters.:106–110 In a nutshell, basic research is the search for knowledge, and applied research is the search for solutions to practical problems using this knowledge. Finally, even basic research can take unexpected turns, and there's a few sense in which the scientific method is built to harness luck.

Research in practice

Due to the increasing complexity of information and specialisation of scientists, most of the cutting-edge research today is done by well funded groups of scientists, rather than individuals. D.K. Simonton notes that due to the breadth of quite precise and far reaching tools already used by researchers today and the amount of research generated so far, creation of new disciplines or revolutions within a discipline might no longer be possible as it is unlikely that a few phenomenon that merits its own discipline has been overlooked. Hybridizing of disciplines and finessing knowledge is, in his view, the future of science.

Practical impacts of scientific research

Discoveries in fundamental science can be world-changing. For example:

ResearchImpact
Static electricity and magnetism (c. 1600)
Electric current (18th century)
All electric appliances, dynamos, electric power stations, modern electronics, including electric lighting, television, electric heating, transcranial magnetic stimulation, deep brain stimulation, magnetic tape, loudspeaker, and the compass and lightning rod.
Diffraction (1665)Optics, hence fiber optic cable (1840s), modern intercontinental communications, and cable TV and internet
Germ theory (1700)Hygiene, leading to decreased transmission of infectious diseases; antibodies, leading to techniques for disease diagnosis and targeted anticancer therapies.
Vaccination (1798)Leading to the elimination of most infectious diseases from developed countries and the worldwide eradication of smallpox.
Photovoltaic effect (1839)Solar cells (1883), hence solar power, solar powered watches, calculators and additional devices.
The strange orbit of Mercury (1859) and additional research
leading to special (1905) and general relativity (1916)
Satellite-based technology such as GPS (1973), satnav and satellite communications
Radio waves (1887)Radio had become used in innumerable ways beyond its better-known areas of telephony, and broadcasttelevision (1927) and radio (1906) entertainment. Other uses included – emergency services, radar (navigation and weather prediction), medicine, astronomy, wireless communications, and networking. Radio waves additionally led researchers to adjacent frequencies such as microwaves, used worldwide for heating and cooking food.
Radioactivity (1896) and antimatter (1932)Cancer treatment (1896), Radiometric dating (1905), nuclear reactors (1942) and weapons (1945), PET scans (1961), and medical research (via isotopic labeling)
X-rays (1896)Medical imaging, including computed tomography
Crystallography and quantum mechanics (1900)Semiconductor devices (1906), hence modern computing and telecommunications including the integration with wireless devices: the mobile phone
Plastics (1907)Starting with Bakelite, a large number of types of artificial polymers for numerous applications in industry and daily life
Antibiotics (1880s, 1928)Salvarsan, Penicilline, doxycycline etc.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (1930s)Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1946), magnetic resonance imaging (1971), functional magnetic resonance imaging (1990s).