Temperare (to mix correctly) is the Latin origin of words like "temperature" and "tempering"; it and "tempo" come, in turn, from tempus (time or season). Thus, the word "temper" can refer (at least informally) to any time- and temperature-sensitive process (as for chocolate tempering or tempered glass), a material's thermo-mechanical history, or even its composition.
- Temper, in archaeology, non-plastic additions to clay, which are used to control shrinkage prior to firing into ceramic vessels
- TEMPER, the name of an atmospheric propagation computer model developed by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab
- Tempering (mixing, kneading) clay or mud in construction is called puddling or clay in pottery wedging.
- Temper, the name of a demo song by the musical group System of a Down
- Temper (album), 2008 album by Michigan-based musician Benoit Pioulard
- Temper (band), an American dance music group
- The Temper Trap, an Australian-based band
- Temper (artist), UK-based graffiti artist
- Temperament, in psychology, the general nature of an individual's personality
- Musical temperament, a tuning system which allows fixed-pitch instruments, such as the piano, greater flexibility in changing keys
- The Well-Tempered Clavier, a composition by Bach