Travel is the movement of people between relatively distant geographical locations, and can involve travel by foot, bicycle, automobile, train, boat, airplane, or additional means, with or without luggage, and can be one way or round trip. Travel can additionally include relatively short stays between successive movements.
The origin of the word "travel" is most likely lost to history. The term "travel" might originate from the Old French word travail. According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, the first known use of the word travel was in the fourteenth century. It additionally states that the word comes from Middle English travailen, travelen (which means to torment, labor, strive, journey) and earlier from Old French travailler (which means to work strenuously, toil). In English we still occasionally use the words travail and travails, which mean struggle. According to Simon Winchester in his book The Best Travelers' Tales (2004), the words travel and travail both share an even more ancient root: a Roman instrument of torture called the tripalium (in Latin it means "three stakes", as in to impale). This link reflects the extreme difficulty of travel in ancient times. Also note the torturous connotation of the word "travailler." Today, travel might or might not be much easier depending upon the destination you choose (i.e., Mt. Everest, the Amazon rainforest), how you plan to get there (tour bus, cruise ship, or oxcart), and whether or not you decide to "rough it (see extreme tourism and adventure travel). "There's a big difference between simply being a tourist and being a true world traveler," notes travel writer Michael Kasum. This is, however, a contested distinction as academic work on the cultures and sociology of travel has noted.
Purpose and motivation
Reasons for travelling include recreation, tourism or vacationing, research travel for the gathering of information, for holiday to visit people, volunteer travel for charity, migration to start life somewhere else, religious pilgrimages and mission trips, business travel, trade, commuting, and additional reasons, such as to obtain health care or waging or fleeing war or for the enjoyment of traveling. Travel might occur by human-powered transport such as walking or bicycling, or with vehicles, such as public transport, automobiles, trains and airplanes.
Motives to travel include:
- discovery and exploration,
- getting to know additional cultures
- taking personal time for building interpersonal relationships
Geographic types of travel
Travel might be local, regional, national (domestic) or international. In a few countries, non-local internal travel might require an internal passport, while international travel typically requires a passport and visa. A trip might additionally be part of a round-trip, which is a particular type of travel whereby a person moves from one location to another and returns.
History of travel
Once difficult, slow and dangerous, travel has tended to become easier, quicker, and more frivolous in the course of history. The evolution of technology such as horse tack and bullet trains has contributed to this trend.
Authorities emphasise the importance of taking precautions to ensure travel safety. When travelling abroad, the odds favour a safe and incident-free trip, however, travellers can be subject to difficulties, crime and violence. Some safety considerations include being aware of one's surroundings, avoiding being the target of a crime, leaving copies of one's passport and itinerary information with trusted people, obtaining medical insurance valid in the country being visited and registering with one's national embassy when arriving in a foreign country. Many countries don't recognise drivers' licences from additional countries; however most countries accept international driving permits. Automobile insurance policies issued in one's own country are often invalid in foreign countries, and it is often a requirement to obtain temporary auto insurance valid in the country being visited. It is additionally advisable to become oriented with the driving-rules and -regulations of destination countries. Wearing a seat belt is highly advisable for safety reasons; a large number of countries have penalties for violating seatbelt laws.
There are three main statistics which might be used to compare the safety of various forms of travel (based on a DETR survey in October 2000):