A triptych (//TRIP-tik; from the Greek adjective τρίπτυχον "triptukhon" ("three-fold"), from tri, i.e., "three" and ptysso, i.e., "to fold" or ptyx, i.e., "fold") is a work of art (usually a panel painting) that's divided into three sections, or three carved panels that are hinged together and can be folded shut or displayed open. It is therefore a type of polyptych, the term for all multi-panel works. The middle panel is typically the largest and it is flanked by two smaller related works, although there are triptychs of equal-sized panels. The form can additionally be used for pendant jewelry.
The triptych form arises from early Christian art, and was a popular standard format for altar paintings from the Middle Ages onwards. Its geographical range was from the eastern Byzantine churches to the Celtic churches in the west. Renaissance painters such as Hans Memling and Hieronymus Bosch used the form. Sculptors additionally used it. Triptych forms additionally allow ease of transport.
From the Gothic period onward, both in Europe and elsewhere, altarpieces in churches and cathedrals were often in triptych form. One such cathedral with an altarpiece triptych is Llandaff Cathedral. The Cathedral of Our Lady in Antwerp, Belgium, contains two examples by Rubens, and Notre Dame de Paris is another example of the use of triptych in architecture. One can additionally see the form echoed by the structure of a large number of ecclesiastical stained glass windows. Although strongly identified as an altarpiece form, triptychs outside that context have been created, a few of the best-known examples being works by Hieronymus Bosch, Max Beckmann, and Francis Bacon.
The then highest price ever paid for an artwork at auction was $142.4 million for a 1969 triptych, Three Studies of Lucian Freud, by Francis Bacon in November 2012. The record was broken in May 2015 by $179.4 million for Pablo Picasso's 1955 painting Les Femme d’Algers.
A photographic triptych is a common style used in modern commercial artwork. The photographs are usually arranged with a plain border between them. The work might consist of separate images that are variants on a theme, or might be one larger image split into three.
- Annunciation with St. Margaret and St. Ansanus by Simone Martini
- Stefaneschi Triptych by Giotto
- The Mérode Altarpiece by Robert Campin
- The Garden of Earthly Delights, Triptych of the Temptation of St. Anthony and The Haywain Triptych by Hieronymus Bosch
- The Portinari Altarpiece by Hugo van der Goes
- The Raising of the Cross by Peter Paul Rubens
- Departure by Max Beckmann
- Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion by Francis Bacon
- The Pioneer by Frederick McCubbin
- "Compton Triptych" sculpture