The legs of the god Vishnu as the Cosmic Man depict earth and the seven realms of the Hindu underworld of Patala. The feet rest on cosmic serpent Shesha.

The underworld or netherworld is an otherworld thought to be deep underground or beneath the surface of the world in most religions and mythologies. Typically it is a place where the souls of the departed go, an afterlife or a realm of the dead. Chthonic is the technical adjective for things of the underworld.

Underworlds by mythology

This list includes underworlds in various mythology, with links to corresponding articles.

Albanian mythologyFerri
Aztec mythologyMictlan
Babylonian mythologyIrkalla
Buddhist mythologyNaraka (also Niraya)
Celtic mythologyAnnwn, Mag Mell
Chinese mythology / taoismDiyu地獄
Christian mythologyHell, Sheol, Gehenna, Tártaros, Limbo, Purgatory
Egyptian mythologyAaru, Duat, Neter-khertet, Amenti
Estonian mythologyToonela
Fijian mythologysee Melanesian mythology
Finnish mythologyTuonela
GermanicHel, Niflheim
Greek mythologyElysium, Asphodel Meadows, Tártaros
Guanche mythology

Echeide, Guayota

Hindu mythologyNaraka or Yamaloka, Patala
Hopi mythologyMaski
Hungarian mythologyAlvilág
Inca mythologyUku Pacha
Inuit mythologyAdlivun
Islamic mythologyJahannam, Naar, Barzakh, Araf
Jain mythologyNaraka, Adho Loka (the lower world)
Japanese mythology/ShintoYomi 黄泉, Ne-no-Kuni 根の国, Jigoku 地獄
Jewish/Hebrew mythologySheol, Gehenna, Abaddon, Azazel, Tehom, Tophet, Tzoah Rotachat, Dudael
Korean mythology"Ji-Ok" 지옥 地獄
Latvian mythologyAizsaule
Malay mythologyAlam Ghaib (The unseen realm)
Indonesian mythology
Māori mythologyHawaiki, Rarohenga
Mapuche mythologyPellumawida, Degin, Wenuleufu, Ngullchenmaiwe
Maya mythologyMetnal, Xibalba
Melanesian mythology(includes Fijian) Bulu, Burotu, Murimuria, Nabagatai, Tuma
Norse mythologyGimlé, Hel, Niflhel, Vingólf
Oromo mythologyEkera
Persian mythologyDuzakh
Philippine mythologyKasanaan
Polynesian mythologyAvaiki, Bulotu, Iva, Lua-o-Milu, Nga- Atua, Pulotu, Rangi Tuarea, Te Toi-o-nga-Ranga, Uranga-o-Te-Ra
Pueblo mythologyShipap
Roman mythologyInferno, Avernus
Romanian mythologyTărâmul Celălalt
Slavic mythologyNav, Podsvetie, Peklo, Iriy
Sumerian mythologyDilmun, Kur, Irkalla, Hubur
Turko-MongolErlik
Vodou mythologyGuinee
Wagawaga (New Guinea) mythologyHiyoyoa

Underworld figures

This list includes rulers or guardians of the underworld in various mythologies, with links to corresponding articles.

Aboriginal mythologyBaiame (Kamilaroi), Eingana
Akkadian mythologyAllu, Anu, Anunnaku, Ereshkigal, Etemmu, Gallu, Humbaba, Mamitu, Nergal, Utnapishtim
Albanian mythologyE Bukura e Dheut
Turko-MongolErlik
Armenian mythologySpandaramat
Aztec mythologyMictlantecuhtli, Mictecacihuatl, Chalmecacihuilt, Chalmecatl
Babylonian mythologyErra, Nergal, Ninlil, Sursunabu, Ur-shanabi, Utnapishtim
Balinese mythologyBatara Kala, Setesuyara
Bon mythologygNyan
Buddhist mythologyYama, Emma-O-, Yanluo
Canaanite mythologyMot, Arsay
Celtic mythologyAed, Arawn, Cwn Annwn, Donn, Gwyn ap Nudd, Manannán mac Lir, Pwyll
Chinese mythologyGui, Yanluo
Christian mythologySatan, Lucifer, Beelzebub
Egyptian mythologyAken, Aker (strictly only the gatekeeper), Am-heh, Amunet, Ammit, Andjety, Anubis, Apep, Apis, Astennu, Ha, Imiut (if the Imiut was ever considered a god), Isis, Mehen, Naunet, Nehebkau, Nephthys, Nun, Nut, Osiris, Ptah, Seker, Thoth
Elamite mythologyJabru
Estonian mythologyVanapagan
Etruscan mythologyCharun, Culsu, Februus, Mania, Mantus, Nethuns, Tuchulcha, Vanth
Finnish mythologyKalma, Kipu-Tyttö, Kivutar, Lovitar, Surma, Tuonen akka, Tuonetar, Tuoni, Vammatar
Greek mythologyCerberus, Charon, Hadēs, Pluto, Keres, Persephone, Thánatos
Georgian mythologysasuleti
Haida mythologyTa'xet, Tia
HinduismYama
Hopi mythologyMaasaw
Ibo mythologyAla
Incan mythologySupay, Vichama
Indonesian mythology (ancient Javananese, Sundanese and Balinese)Batara Kala guardian for sinners souls' underworld, Dewi Sri guardess for the righteous souls' underworld
Inuit mythologyPana, Sedna
Islamic mythologyMaalik as the guardian of the jahannam hell's door, Iblis accompany the sinners in jahannam
Japanese mythologyHotoke, Izanami-no-Mikoto, Jikininki, Shikome, Shitidama, Shiryō, Susanoo-no-Mikoto, Yama
Kassite mythologyDur
Khmer mythologyPreas Eyssaur
Latvian mythologyVeļi, Velu mate, Zemes mate
Levantine mythologyMot, Arsay
Lunda mythologyKalunga
Maori mythologyKewa
Maya mythologyXibalba
Melanesian mythology(includes Fijian mythology) Degei, Ratumaibulu, Samulayo
Narragansett mythologyChepi
Navaho mythologyEstsanatlehi
Niquiran mythologyMictanteot
Norse mythologyGarmr, Hel, Ran
Ob-Ugrian mythologyHeini-iki
Orokolo mythologyKiavari
Persian mythologyAngra Mainyu, Azhi Dahaka, Peri
Philippine mythologyMagwayen/Maguayen, Sidapa
Phoenician mythologyHoron
Phrygian mythologyMen
Polynesian mythologyHikuleo, Hina, Hine-nui-te-Po, Kanaloa, Kiho-tumu, Makea Tutara, Mahiuki, Mahu-ike, Marama, Mauri, Merau, Milu, Miru, Rimu, Rohe, Whiro
Prussian mythologyPicullus
Pueblo mythologyIyatiku
Roma (Gypsy) mythologyBeng
Roman mythologyCerberus, Dea Tacita, Dis Pater, Egestes, Fames, Inferi Dii, Larenta, Letum, Libitina, Mors, Orcus, Pluto, Proserpina, Viduus
Romanian mythologyDiavolu, Satana, Necuratu, Scaraoschi
Russian mythologyDyavol, Satanaya
Saami mythologyYambe-akka
Salish mythologyAmotken
Siberian mythologyChebeldei, Kul
Slavic mythologyCrnobog, Flins, Marzana, Nyia, Veles (god)
Sumerian mythologyEdimmu, Ekimmu, Endukugga, Enmesarra, Ereshkigal, Gidim, Gula, Irkalla, Kur, Namtar, Nergal, Neti, Nindukugga, Ninlil, Urshanabi, Ziusudra
Syrian mythologyReshep
Tamil mythologyCur
Thracian mythologyHeros
Turkic mythologyErlik
VodouBaron Cimetière, Baron La Croix, Baron Samedi, Ghede, Maman Brigitte, Marassa Jumeaux
Wagawaga mythologyTumudurere
Yoruba mythologyEsu
Yurak mythologyNga
Zuni mythologyUhepono

  • Otherworld
  • World Tree — A tree that connects the heavens, the earth, and the underworld in a number of spiritual belief systems